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Lecture

09 - November 5, 2013.docx

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Department
Linguistics
Course
JAL328H1
Professor
Danny Harvey
Semester
Fall

Description
JAL th November 5 , 2013 Quiz Page 3 – printing issues – if the test had printing errors, what was done about it was noted Matrices lectiones – know for the final exam Representation of Thai tone from previous lecture Know two pieces of information to read with correct tone – first is the consonant class; each consonant- inherent-vowel falls into one of three categories (high class, middle class, low class) In red – both aspirated t – but different symbols Combination of consoant-class and diacritic gives tone Thia tone works by combining consonant class and diacritic and what tone you get after adding those two TOGETHER – combination of the two OTHER SCRIPTS Runic – most of the Germanic languages have been written in runes at some time or other All the lines are either vertical or diagonal – no curves, or few curves AND no horizontal lines because runes were originally written on wood and then ashes were rubbed into the wood; curves would result in personal injury; horizontal lines would be indistinguishable from grain of the wood Runic alphabet – often written on artifacts Cryptic runes – conifers at end of line in picture Futhark – first letters in orther like alphabet is alpha-beta, abjida, abjad 8 characters is one family; followed by next families – dividing the alphabet Conifer – on one side is how many members per family; on the other line, how many familes - One conifer – secret rune writing – left number of marks is the xth family; the right number of markings is the xth member of that family Origins Old Italic – Etruscans were the central power To the north of Etruscans were Rhaetians – mofidied Etruscan script to suit their languages – a theory is that Germanic peoples on otherside of the Alps Rhaetic? Latin? Blue shows runic and latin symbols are very similar Most line up phonologically Red letters – show Latin sound and runic sound partially the same – some changes to the values of these sounds Green – do not seem to fit in Rhaetic (Tirol, Austria) Rahetian writing in Austria – RIGHT TO LEFT like Etruscans Not hard to find connections between Old Italic writing and Runic Aspects of runes Pretty free form – writing direction was free form; characters could be flipped mirror-image; no spacing; no punctuation; a string of letters essentially Have ligatures – called bind runes – th Elder futhark is earliest form of runes – until around 8 century Uses – what were they writing about? Memorials – large – wherever Vikings went, would write their names (just names), see it all over the place “Runic graffiti” Day to day use Monumental stones survive – in city of Bergen in Norway – discovered a large number of wooden rune sticks – daily stuff – real life personal things Elder futhark is oldest In Scandinavia, found “younger” futhark – branch off with different ethnicities – Swedish, Danish, etc. Old English also written in Runes Scandinavian younger futhark Scandinavian – also had massive sound changes around time when elder futhark was in use – the system adapts to the new vowel qualities – have many new sounds coming in and going out – the symbols start to rearrange themselves, used differently – voicing stopped being marked – inventory reduced by vowel and consonant mergers Acrophony also working here because sounds deleted at beginning of words Ex. J disappears – symbol that represents /y/ now representing /ar/ - Result in 16 rune futhark – all voicing distinctions disappear; vowel distinctions, amny disappear Osterberga Runestone – younger futhark in Sweden – Christian iconography in the middle; Runes not pagan Zoomed in – symbols worn away – New set of shorthand coming into play during this time – just write tick marks, not the full runes Two lines going down with the tick marks in between – lines are part of the script Called Halsinge Runes – most Spartan runic system Medieval dotted runes Last runes – temporal last Order has changed No longer futhark Added in letters – like q – that Latin had but not in Runic originally Anglo-Frisian runes English runes not nearly as prolific as they were in Sandinavia Anglo-saxon had a lot of sound changes, but instaed of reducing number of runes (like Vikings), more letters added The Hobbit – on the edges – modern English written in old Anglo-Saxon runes Anglo-Saxon Runic Order Record of the runic order from Anglo-Saxon – just like before, written everywhere Scramasax is sword blade – wrote alphabet on the blade Ogham Writing on the sides – like scratch marks on sides of monumental stones Celtic script for celtic languages, like Irish; Old Irish used to write Ogham Like Runic, many cryptic cypher scripts – write by family and number Ogham stones found in East of Scotland that are difficult to read – may be PIctish? Or just undeciphered cypher? Ogham stones here cannot be read Also manuscript Ogham – writing on paper – put horizontal line down
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