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JLP315 MAY 22.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Ailis Cournane

JLP315 MAY 22, 2013 Phonological development Questions - What are the components of phon knowledge - What are the stages – the path to adult life phonology - What is phonological nature of early words - What isphonology like using same sounds like adults how different - Phones – sound segments - 3 question is production th - 4 what they take in Back - Speech sounds and sign language equivalent - All possible sounds in human language - More or less finite set – all languages find same sounds over and over and frequent - Phone – p pah - Thre branches - Phonetic – the auditory wave forms – how proidce - Articulatory phonetic – the vocal apparust - Phonology – sound system part language - Set of phones they use - No language makes use of all of them and rules for combination of them - Phoneme – signal difference in meaning – only in lanaguages - B and d bec both phones signal meaning contrast - Change initial segment 2 different meanings - H is aspirated. Spot p no burst of air, but for pot burst of air after produce p - Acoustically and articulatry are phonetically different – but speaker say the phone are the same - Aspiration – not meaningful - Same acoustical difference in hindi means difference of two words - Phonology – language relationship between phones - Minal pair is big and dig, mininaly different with different meanings Allophones - Ph and p acoustically different but behave as P they function same phoneme - These are allophones of /p/ also ph and p (unreleased) as in pop - Allophones of p - T another phoneme of English - All t interpreted as t in English speakers - Ask what sound is t they say t – but acoustically they don’t hear it Phon constrainst - 9 months of age infant - Restrictions that separate possible sequences of sounds from impossible sequences of sound - Sounds that can exist bec follow sequence rules in English - They would know not possible word in English - Ng words cant begin but can end like in sing - Possible word of English can look like - Many languages don’t allow consant cluster - Hawain only CV - Krismas – make it kalikimaka - Square brackets is phone - // is phoneme meaningful sound - German pronounciation English not use it - Burrow words put it into phonetics - Baby words use words that obey English phonetactics but not actually real words - Syllable - Unit for sequencing sppech sounds - Syllable can be minimally a vowel – one syllable one vowel like “I” - Suprasegmental – operate over the words ie tone of words - Prosidy – intonation over words or several words - English more then 1 syllable stree syllable – two syllable mostly firs like DADdy Summary - Distributions – souds beginning of words end of word - Phone contraslty – like b d dig - O line is syllable - Some allow clusters onset some don’t - Coda – consanat end of rhyme some don’t some do Consonants - Voiced or unvoiced (voicless) - Voicing – vocal folds vibrating - S no flapping and z buzzing produce same way on voiced on isn’t – contrastive feature - Fricative – close mouth but not fully - Stop is full closure - Affricative – stop fricative - Nasal – close mouth and air from nose - Glide – moving fluid sounds - Place of artic – where tongue place - Bilabial – both lips - Labdental – teeth lip - Interdnetal – tongue between teeth - Alvel – alv ridge - Palatal – hard palate behind - Velar – further soft - Glottal – not tongue, at larynx close it is glottal stop Consonants - Place and manner two in box second is voiced first is not - Language not use all of them Vowel - Consiants some type of closure - Vowels are open and modulate vocal tract - Close – jaw pretty much close - One parameter vowels classified - Pos of tongue e is front - O is rounded vowel – lips - Muscular force – tense is e and let of get eh Vowel - Trapezoid - Teeth left - Front central where put tongue - Right is rouded left is not i I capital is laxed Example - P at beginning in English is aspirated - Eat eater first is t add er is flap - Plural for kid and kit – same = neutralization - R is flap - T d are both alveolar – - Rules target subsets – ie t d both avelor Stages - Before 2 months – cooing = baby noises - 16 30 weeks – vocal play 13 - 10 months more like adult - Protoword symbolic meaning not adult – protoword - Frequent early sounds 10 months to year is early cons - K and g three months - Control over lips then tongue - Tongue not a muscle but several muscle - Argue not adult like n because lack of precise tongue control Citizens of the world - (Jargon not babbling – more variated and larger inventory of sounds) - Kuhl - Koro 800 people – need to speak to baby to preserve language - Critical period – vertical is skill acquiring seconf langaue can to 7 and fall off map - Turn head when sound changes and do so panda pops up at beats drum - Discrimate all sounds in all languages - Tokyo America r l sound 6 8 months bad 10 12 - Critical period - Babies listening intently - Motherlies – speak to kids - Take stats and distribution grow - R l for English - Japaenese intermediates sounds -
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