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LIN228H1 (26)
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Department
Linguistics
Course
LIN228H1
Professor
A.Kochetov
Semester
Fall

Description
LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 5 Kochetov-1 English Accents & Review 1. Phonetic features distinguishing English accents/dialects Rhoticism Many varieties of English do not allow /ɹ/ to occur in syllable coda position. These varieties are called non-rhotic, and include RP, West Indian, Australian, New Zealand, Southeastern U.S. and African American Vernacular English (AAVE). car [kɑ] beer [biǝ] part [ pɑt] pear [ pɛǝ] [pe] better [ ˈbɛtǝ] fire [ ˈfajǝ] Some non-rhotic dialects also have a ‘linking ɹ’ that is inserted between morphemes when the first morpheme ends in a non-high vowel and the second begins with a vowel. For example, in non-rhotic dialects with linking ɹ the words tuna and tuner are identical in all contexts. Pass me the tuna. [ ˈpæs mi ðǝ ˈtunǝ] Pass me the tuner. The tuna is on the table. [ ðǝ ˈtunǝɹ ɪz ɑn ðǝ ˈtejbl]̩ The tuner is on the table. In rhotic dialects, such as Canadian, General American, Irish, and Scottish English, /ɹ/ does occur in coda position. car [ kɑɹ] beer [biɹ] part [ pɑɹt] pear [ pɛɹ] [peǝɹ] better [ ˈbɛɾǝɹ], [ˈbɛɾɚ] fire [ ˈfajǝɹ] In Scottish English, the rhotic is realized as a tap or a trill. pearl [ ˈpɛɾl]̩ [ˈpɛrl]̩ pour [ poɾ] [por] Intervocalic /t/ In General American, Canadian English and often in South African and New Zealand English /t/ is realized as a voiced alveolar tap /ɾ/ intervocalically. better [ˈbɛɾǝɹ] city [ ˈsɪɾi] In RP, intervocalic /t/ is glottalized, especially in the speech of younger speakers. better [ˈbɛɁtǝ] city [ˈsɪɁti] LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 5 Kochetov-2 In Belfast English and Australian English intervocalic /t/ is often voiced [d]. city [ˈsɪdɪ] Back vowels or the caught-cot distinction Canadian English has the same vowel in the lexical items caught and cot. caught [kɑt] cot [ kɑt] calm [ kɑm] General American has a distinction. caught [ kɔt] cot [ kɑt] calm [ kɑm] In RP, the vowels are distinguished, as in GA, but the vowel in cot is realized as the low, back, rounded vowel /ɒ/ which is absent in GA. caught [ kɔt] cot [ kɒt] calm [ kɑm] That is, 1 low vowel in Canadian English corresponds to 2 such phonemes in General American, and 3 phonemes in RP. Front vowels or merry-marry-Mary In RP, merry, marry, and Mary all have distinct vowels. merry [ ˈmɛɹi] marry [ ˈmæɹi] Mary [ ˈmeǝɹi] In General American and Canadian English all three words tend to be produced with the same vowel. merry [ ˈmɛɹi] marry [ ˈmɛɹi] Mary [ ˈmɛɹi] Note that, unlike in the caught-cot example, North American varieties of English do have distinct phonemes /æ/ and /ɛ/ and /e/ (bat – bet – bait). The contrast between these sounds is neutralized before /ɹ/. Presence of /h/ Historically, English /h/ appeared in onset clusters that are not permissible in modern English. onseEOgliMhEdngrish hn- hnutut hl- hláfloaf hr- hrinring hw- hwit hite hj- hugeuge h- healfalf hn-, hl-, and hr- are no longer found as onset clusters in any dialect of English. English dialects differ in terms of what other clusters /h/ may appear in. LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 5 Kochetov-3 In Scottish and Irish English which is distinct from witch (/ʍ/ vs. /w/), /hj/ clusters are permitted and /h/ occurs independently as an onset. which [ ʍɪʧ] witch [ wɪʧ] huge [ hjuʤ] hat [ hæt] In RP, Canadian English, and most other varieties which and witch are not distinguished, /hj/ clusters are permitted, and /h/ occurs independently as an onset. which [ wɪʧ] witch [ wɪʧ] huge [ hjuʤ] hat [ hæt] In Newfoundland which and witch are not distinguished, /hj/ is not a permissible cluster, and /h/ does occur independently as an onset. which [ wɪʧ] witch [ wɪʧ] huge [ juʤ] hat [ hæt] In Cockney, Australian English, and West Indies English /h/ is generally lost as a phoneme. which [ wɪʧ] witch [ wɪʧ] huge [ juʤ] hat [ æt] Onsets that are permitted in the greatest number of dialects are those that have a glide as the second member of the onset, /hw
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