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LIN323 Notes - Topic 1.docx

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Department
Linguistics
Course
LIN323H1
Professor
Marshall Chasin
Semester
Fall

Description
TOPIC 1 – BASIC ACOUSTIC CONCEPTS Frequency  Frequency: The number of complete cycles or vibrations existing in one second (Hz)  Pitch: The subjective auditory property of a sound that enables a listener to place the sound on a scale going from low to high without considering the acoustic properties of the sound  Frequencies are only good for expressing pure tones o E.g. middle C on a piano has F0 (fundamental frequency) of 262 Hz but is also made up of other higher frequencies that make a piano sound like a piano.  Supersonics o Sounds that are above normal hearing range (>12 kHz) o E.g. mosquito device that emits an 18000 Hz signal is audible to an 18 year old but not to a 50 year old  Subsonics o Sounds that are below normal hearing range (<20 Hz) o Can cause discomfort (headaches, influence on speech, chest pains, urge to urinate, etc.)  Frequency range of speech is 100 Hz to 12000 Hz o Only need up to 4000 Hz to correctly identify speech under normal hearing  Characteristics of low-frequency sounds 1. Long wavelengths 2. Good transmission in air 3. Difficult to reflect or attenuate  Characteristics of high-frequency sounds 1. Short wavelengths 2. Poor transmission in air 3. Easily reflected or attenuated  The types of frequency we are interested in: o Fundamental frequency o Formant frequency  Distance and environment are NOT factors of frequency Intensity  Intensity (Amplitude or Sound Level): The increase or decrease of air pressure associated with any sound usually measured in decibels (dB) o A decibel is a measure
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