LIN228H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Voiced Uvular Fricative, Bilabial Trill, Labialization

96 views8 pages
28 Apr 2017
School
Department
Course
Professor
LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 9 Kochetov-1
Consonants of the World’s Languages: Place and manner of articulation
Review: Place and manner of articulation of English consonants (Handout 2, Chapter 3)
place
manner
bi
labial
labio
dental
dental
retro
flex
post-
alveolar
palatal
velar
glottal
stops
vls.
/p/
/k/
vcd
/b/
/ɡ/
tap
vcd
fricative
-es
vls
/f/
/θ/
/ʃ/
/h/
vcd
/v/
/ð/
/ʒ/
affricat-
es
vls
/ʧ/
vcd
/ʤ/
nasal
/m/
/ŋ/
liquids
/ɹ/
glides
/w/*
/j/
/w/*
Review: Electropalatography (EPG)
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
1. Place of articulation:
Active
Articu-
lator
Passive Articulator
upper lip
upper
teeth
alveolar
ridge
behind
alveolar
ridge
palate
velum
uvula
pharyngeal
wall
glottis
lower
lip
bilabial
labio-
dental
tip
linguolabial
(apico)
dental
(apico)
alveolar
retroflex
blade
lamino-
dental
alveo-
palatal
(lamino)
postalveolar
front
palatal
back
(dorso)
velar
(dorso)
uvular
root
(radico)
pharyngeal
glottis
glottal
Other terms:
labial – made using one or both lips. Includes bilabial, labiodental, linguolabial;
coronal – made with the tip or blade of the tongue.
labial or
glottal
dental
alveolar
fricative
post-alveolar
fricative
velar
less contact for
/w/ glide
(Lower articulator)
(upper)
Electropalatography will be on the final exam
rear of
the
alveolar
ridge
Sonorants
Obstruents
Sibilants (hissing)
alveolar stops
and nasals
lateral
approximant
(complete
closure just
isn't able to
be shown)
retroflex rhotic
approximant
palatal glide
dorsal -- made with the front or back of the tongue
QUIZ 2: Transcription of 5 nonsense words with non-english IPA sounds and articulation of 4 nonsense words
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 9 Kochetov-2
Place
Stop
Fricative
Nasal
voiceless
voiced
voiceless
voiced
bilabial
p
b
ɸ
β
m
labiodental
f
v
ɱ
linguolabial
p̼
ɸ̼
β̼
dental
θ
ð
alveolar
t
d
s
z
n
retroflex
ʈ
ɖ
ʂ
ʐ
ɳ
alveopalatal
ɕ
ʑ
postalveolar
ʃ
ʒ
palatal
c
ɟ
ç
ʝ
ɲ
velar
k
ɡ
x
ɣ
ŋ
uvular
q
ɢ
χ
ʁ
ɴ
pharyngeal
ħ
ʕ
glottal
ʔ
h
ɦ
Bilabial
In Ewe, bilabial fricatives and labiodental fricatives are contrastive.
P. Ladefogeds Course in Phonetics
http://www.phonetics.ucla.edu/course/chapter7.html
Labiodental
Labiodental fricatives are common cross-linguistically. The labiodental nasal appears
allophonically in English when an /m/ occurs before /f/ or /v/.
Linguolabial
Linguolabial sounds are made with the tip or blade of the tongue contacting the
___________________. While such sounds are quite easy to produce they are extremely rare.
upper lip
e.g. symphony
Indian English dental
fricatives realized as dental
stops
alveolars become retroflex
following r
more raising of tongue body, lowering of apex
human, signor, oignon, yes, "hes"
say "ah" as low as possible
breathy voiced
vowels
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 9 Kochetov-3
V’enen Taut
/nəm
̼
ək/ ‘my tongue’ /nəmək/ my spirit
Dental
The dental fricatives are familiar from English. Voiced and voiceless stops are also common at
the dental place of articulation. Most languages will have either dental or alveolar articulation for
the coronal stops. The symbols /t, d, n/ are generally used and will be understood to refer to
dental or alveolar depending on the language in question.
Some languages do contrast dental and alveolar places of articulation in the stop series. In such
cases, one place of articulation is often laminal while the other is apical.
Alveolar
The alveolar sounds /t, d, n, s, z, l/ are made with the tongue tip or blade forming a constriction
with the alveolar ridge.
Alveo-palatal
Alveo-palatal sounds are formed with the tongue tip behind the lower teeth and the blade
forming a constriction with the back part of the alveolar ridge. The voiceless and voiced alveo-
palatal fricatives are represented by the symbols /ɕ, ʑ/. The contrast between post-alveolars and
alveo-palatals is rare and these terms are used interchangeably in some contexts.
Polish has alveopalatal, as well as alveolar and retroflex sibilant fricatives.
/sɑli/ ‘room’ (gen.) /ɕɑli/ ‘sowed’ /ʂɑli/ ‘scale’ (gen.)
/zɑlɛf/ ‘bay’ /ʑɑli/ gasped’ /ʐɑli/ ‘complaints’ (gen.)
Postalveolar
Postalveolar sounds are made with a constriction between the blade of the tongue and the area
bordering on the alveolar ridge and the palate. The postalveolar fricatives /ʃ, ʒ/ and affricates /ʧ,
ʤ/ are familiar from English and are common cross-linguistically.
Evidence from x-rays show that alveolar and postalveolar fricatives are produced with a variety
of tongue shapes and cannot be given a clear articulatory definition. Crucially, the airstream
produced in the articulation of /s, z/ must hit the upper teeth while the airstream produced in the
articulation of /ʃ, ʒ/ must hit the lower teeth.
Retroflex
Retroflex consonants are produced by curling the tongue back and creating a constriction
between the tongue tip and the area bordering on the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
Retroflex consonants can be characterized acoustically as __________________ F3 of adjacent
vowels.
lowering
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class