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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

January 24 , 2012 Second Intermediate Period th - 13 Dynasty: shorter reigns; brother-to-brother succession - Rise of 14 Dynasty in Lower Egyptbreak in continuity  West Semitic th - 15 Dynasty: “Hyksos”  Heqa:Haswt - ”Ruler of Foreign Lands”  Invasion of chiefs with military contingent of Syro-Palestine?  Peaceful take over by rulers who entered Egypt and mobilized Asiatic population already in the Delta?  3 rd and 4 thkings held Horus names, Nebty names, and Golden Falcon names  Tell el-Yahudiya (eastern Delta, close to the route that leads to Syro-Palestine) Wares (long, slender neck and handles)  Found at the site with Scarabs (seals_  Burials also included known rulers th  Hallmarks of the 15 Dynasty  Also began using cylindrical seals (haven’t been used since early dynastic times); sometimes have funny writing on itdid not understand Egyptian convention/grammar?  Also found a fort enclosure at the site, with tombs including juglets and scarabs inside Inside the tombs, bodies are not supine, some crouches, others in fetal positions  Tell el-Maskhuta located right on Wadi Tumilat  Similar objects found as those at Tell el-Yahudiya  Tell el-Dab’a (ancient Avaris, capital of the Hyksos)  Houe structure found at burials (settlement with contemporary burialsnon-Egyptian)  Large group of family members buried in the same tomb (feature known from some origin in the Levant)  Burials of donkey (feature known from the Levant, animal burials not prominent in indigenous Egyptian burials at this time)  “Warrior Tomb”: many weapons buried with the body  Another tomb with individual randomly thrown in, bones who sings of malnutrition (14 Dynasty)  Ezbet Helmi:  Worshipped Seth (“god of chaos”)  Some Mesopotamian temples  Building of fortification enclosure walls th  A series of palace structures, began in 14 Dynasty, greatly expanded in the 15 Dynasty  An associated garden with burials of high officers  Some burials are Egyptian in nature, others not so much  Room filled with fallen decorations, painting on west plasters (fresco)Aegean in characteracrobat over bull (Minoan and Aegean in character)maze like background (Minoan)represents a kind of decoration that is not Egyptian In comparison, the fresco from Akrotiri, Crete (Minoan) do not have motif in the background, but there are bull-leaping acrobats, Also, the Egyptian ones have frontal representation of the bull’s face, not found in the Minoan fresco  Excavated by Bietek  Dated the strata to the 14 th Dynasty originally, now re-dated to the 18 Dynasty - Volcanic eruption at San Torini (big event)  may have changed the climate  caused famine  hummus expelled found at areas in Mesopotamia, Egypt (specific piece shown in class found at Tell el-Dab’a) Later Second Intermediate Period - 15 thDynasty succeeded in taking over all of Egypt, defeating 16 thDynasty (Thebes), also took over Abydos, which had regional rulers - 15 Dynasty rulers maintained control for a short period of time - 17 Dynasty arose in Thebes, consolidated control over the southernmost part of Egypt  Expanded North, as North as Abydos - Last part of 15 Dynasty have problems with succession, which
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