NMC273Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Asara, Sasanian Empire, Fairy

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I. The Rashidun (Rightly-Guided) Caliphs
- Caliphs
- Abu Bakr 632-634 –first Rashidun caliphs –age was reason for
appointment –had sabiqa, an early convert –asked by prophet to lead the prayer –spent
night with Prophet in cave
- 'Umar ibn al-Khattab 634-644
- 'Uthman 644-656 –he knew about politics, which is important
- 'Ali 656-661 -Kufa
- Capital: Medina, but Kufa under 'Ali
- General nature of period: religious authority based on association with Prophet
Called rightly guided/Rashidun because it was a golden age of Muslim history to the
-tribal element as all from Quraysh
-Sabiqa –the umura/leaders, unsair/bazirs
-gained accendancy as they were becoming dominant
-not all were religious relationships with Prophet
-Shi’a (followers of Ali), Khaqarij (descended from Ali, Muta’zila (rationalists, those
who removed sleves from politics), Murjia (judgement of all parties)
II Abu Bakr's caliphate 632-634
- Result of power struggle –conflict –all of Rashidun –violent conflict –all of
them died except him
-889AD Ibn Kudaida –put Asad over political and economic power –and the tribal
problems in
-Saquifa –ansar met and decided who would be caliph and wanted to keep it
within themselves
-rise of theological schools and religious laws
-Al Kufi 926 AD- account of the leadership, didn’t listen to the Saqifa
-Al Tuburi –earliest chroniclers –first universal chronicles –back from creation to
his own life -923
died –gives several stories
- Basis and justification of his rule
- Early governance/administration
III. Nature of the Ridda Campaigns
- Abu Bakr's caliphate defined by the Ridda
- Definition of 'Ridda' –apostasy/rejecting something –not everyone converted to
Islam, tribes who didn’t accept it stop paying sadaqa/taxes to Medina
-some tribes thought that end of agreement was when Muhammad died
- Religio-political challenges to authority of Medinan caliphate –Muhammad not
only Prophet
- Yamama –Musaylima (Maslima) was other prophet/leader –defeated by
Ibn al-Walid
- Description: geography, economy, people, religion, etc.
- Banu Hanifa
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