NMC278H1 Lecture 3: LEC 3 NMC278

4 Pages
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Department
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Course Code
NMC278H1
Professor
James Reilly

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LEC 3 ID: Nasir al-Din Shah (r.1848-1896) Dar al-Funun (1851) Cossack Brigade  In iran 19th century change b/c of euro pressure and ME response and initiatives  The Iranians were dealing with mainly GB and Russia b/c of geo  Throughout 19th century the qajar kings relied on the the 2 keeping each other in check  b/c of weakness  Iran room for maneuvering shrinks as concessions had to be made to both sides  Both developed interests in protecting qajar dynasty as it ensured their interests  Impact of free trade treaty had same effect as in ottoman  Iranian merchant put to a disadvantage, had to pay internal tariffs  Import/export merchants benefit  Sector not undermined by free trade meant lower cost for stuff  Group of prosperous land owners developed more power as raw material export increase  Some ppl were winners other loser b/c of free trade  1840s first petitions from merchants in bazaars sent to shah  Entry into world market caused disruption  Some crafts like silk weaving declined/disappeared  Hand loomed carpet weaving saw a boom as Europeans wanted it  Overall economic stats suggest that standard of living went down in 2nd half of 19th century  1840s religious revolts, qajars and ulamas repress it babi revolt (themes include critisism of social heirarchy, clergy, activists tended to be merchants artisans mid level ulamas, women )  NASIR AL-DIN SHAH (1848-1896)  The shah intermittently supported officials who wanted reform  New very well what was happening in egypt and the ottomans  Cited to the ottoman tanzimat as an example  Iran didn’t do that much state building  Pastoral nomads larger force in iran then ottoman or egypt  Btwn 25-50 %  The soldiers provided by cheiftains of the tribes  The qajars themselves were a tribe  Centralization would deprive them of their autonomy  The ulamas and provincial nobles had no interest in centralization  The ulama in iran unlike ottoman had more distance autonomy from the qajars  Iranian ulama were economically independent collected religious tax  1700s onward leading sheai lived in ottoman iraq, so further seperated  So ulama and the provincial ppl don’t want centralization  The attitude of the shahs themselves discouraged the centralization  They had signed treaties w/ GM and Russia so they both had stake in qajar  The shahs relied more on outside support rather then internal building up and strengthening  Despite reluctance to do state strenghening  Did try to do some stuff  Iranian beurocratic ppl created technical school to train ppl based on french style  Dar al funun trained administrators  Graduates became some of the biggest advocates for tanzimat style  Shah diddnt want more  Some early experiments with euro style army but not really  Only modern military force was the cossack brigade  Cossack brigade was personal use of qajars to fight internal enemies  Russian officers  Qajars diddnt have modern force to defend borders b/c they thought british russians will keep evry1 in check  Cossacks est 1879  Cossacks are palace guard  Nasir al din shah keen to get more revenues so granted concessions for europeans  Had backlash from merchants and  Some way that mahmud tried to make himself more in the public eye as father  Nasir din shah was keen to put monarch more in the public eye in new ways  After visiting paris in 1873 and being impressed nasir al din ordered reconstruction of tenhran to create wide grand boulevard with royal pavillion at its end w/ amphitheatre to do ceremonies an stuff  Seek symbols of legitimacy relgoius and culturally  Overall iran saw no tanzimat style reform in the 1800s  After 1890 as popular political movements started to challenge the shahs and the euro powers 10:46 AM Suez
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