NFS284 Lecture 1

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University of Toronto St. George
Nutritional Science
Debbie Gurfinkel

NFS284 Lecture 1 Chapter 1: Food for Health  What is the science that studies the interaction b/w human and food? o Human Nutrition  1.1 Nutrition and the Canadian Diet: How healthy is the Canadian diet? o Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)  Survey of health info including food intake  Over more than 50% Canadians not consuming enough grain products, milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit  Eating enough meats though  Some nutrients not consumed enough and probably eating food that’s not healthy  High fat food choices (sources of fat): pizza, burgers, hot dogs, cookies, donuts, and muffins  Snacks: all of above, regular soft drinks – has sugar, high source of calories  % adults eating more than 35% of calories from fat, meaning % Canadians eating too much fat  Lot of this fat from snack foods  Usually bought, not made from home  Important to eat well; also determined by other lifestyle choices  Leading causes of death all have nutrition related component  Chronic disease  Develops slowly  Lasts a long time  Good nutrition can reduce your risk of chronic disease  1.2 Food provides nutrients o If make good food choices, get essential nutrients o Some is quantitative o Measure if something essential by removing and adding to diet o Essential Nutrients are essential to human life; must be provided by the diet; can’t be biosynthesized in the body in sufficient quantities o If essential nutrients absent from diet result in deficiency symptoms/illness which, in extreme cases, could lead to death; however, if add nutrient back in diet, the deficiency symptoms disappear o Test your nutrient literacy  A: Carbohydrates, lipids (dietary fat/fat), protein  Q: What are Macronutrients?  A: Compounds that are the building blocks of protein. There are essential and non-essential forms of these compounds  Q: What are amino acids?  A: To support basal metabolism and physical activity, both fat (lipids) and carbohydrates are sources. When present in excess, protein is also a source  Q: What is energy? (expressed in kcal or kjoules or just cal)  A: 4kcal/g, 9kcal/g, 4kcal/g [know these numbers!]  Q: What are energy content for carbohydrates, then lipids, then proteins?  A: The total kcalories consumed by someone who ate the following: carbohydrates: 300gm, fat: 60gm, protein: 90gm  Q: What is 21kcal?  A: A digestible carbohydrate; a source of energy; found in staples such as rice, wheat, corn, potato, and cassava  Q: What is starch?  A: The major chemical form of lipids in food; an ester of glycerol and three fatty acids  Q: What are triglycerides?  A: Fatty acids that contain double bonds; considered to be beneficial to health; common in plant oils such as canola oil, soybean oil, and olive oil  Q: What are non-saturated fatty acids? [PUFA and monounsaturated FA (especially in olive oil)]  A: 2 PUFAs: Linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acid), alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid); must be obtained from the diet  Q: What are essential fatty acids? [very important]  Lots of linolenic acid in our diets; little harder to get omega-3 acid  A: Omega-3 fatty acids synthesized in the body from alpha-linolenic acid (18C); also obtained from the consumption of fatty fish or fish oil supplements  What are EPA (20 C) and DHA (22 C)?  Long chain fatty acids; not considered essential, but synthetic process not efficient; long chain b/c lots of carbons  A: Two types of fatty acids associate
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