Lecture 4 - Carbohydrates

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Department
Nutritional Science
Course
NFS386H1
Professor
Debbie Gurfinkel
Semester
Fall

Description
NFS386 Lecture 4 sometimes glucose is replaced by maltoseits some other sugar4 Oct 2011 that is not sucroseminimize agitation of the solution so that it doesnt crystallize when yoSurface tension dont want it tocompared pure water to the SDS samples emulsifier detergent with polar forms amorphous glasshead and nonpolar tail dodecal portion of the molecule and sugar beet glucose syrup is an interfering agentpectin samples as well as other types of pectinsmolecule that interferes with crystallization of sucrose adding emulsifier to water decreases the surface tensionsugar beet pectin reduces surface tensionnot as good as the classicalCaramelization SDS but it still works better than the other pectins because of the ferrulic heterogeneous structuremany different isomers formed with only an acid ad proteinsempirical structure in commoncohesive forces at the surface of waterformation of flavour compoundshydrogen bonds between water molecules that creates a force at the forms in 3 stagessurfacethese forces are stronger because they only go in one 1 loss of water from sucroseisosachrosan with 2 ether linkagesdirection not upwards pretty much only sideways because no water 2 additional heatingdimerization of the sucrose while the molecules are above themsucrose is now isosachrosan in scientific literature you write every emulsifier hydrophobic end cant penetrate any deeper than the equation is relation to the original starting compoundsurface and the polar end inserts itself in the surfacethe surface dimer is caramelantension is disrupted when they create a hydrophobic layer on top of 3 sucrose caramelan trimerizescaramelenthe water4 if you overshoot the optimal temperature you get a very dark ability to lower surface tension is directly proportional to its brown compound called humin or caramelinability to emulsifycaramel colours are not really flavouredcaramel colourssulfites are often used to colour foods Pectin degradationflavour compoundspolar component is the hydroxyl groups hanging off of the sugar component of the molecule Important sweet products nonpolar component comes from the protein and ferrulic acidsugarcane sugar beet honeyferrulic acid has a hydroxyl group but it also has an aromatic ring how do we get sugar from sugarcaneand methyl groupThe addition of CaOH prevents breakdown remember that sugar forms esters with hydroxyls in sugars attaching itself to pectin breaks down from acid exposureslightly above pH 7 to avoid and creating regions of hydrophobicitydegradation from excess basehydrophobic regions of the protein contain Val Pro Ala Cys Ile heated lightly to denature proteins of the plan material which form a Leu Pheof the protein is hydrophobic in characterlayer that can be filtered outconcentration under low pressureapply a slight vacuum to allowHow do polysaccharides emulsify the water to evaporate at low temperatures cant add heat without had a variety of molecular weightsthe heaviest one is the most degrading sugaremulsifyingforms solid crystals and mother liquoras weight rises more protein and ferrulic acid is present which contains repeat the process continually removing sugarthe hydrophobic amino acids and aromatic rings can only be done 3 timesdoing it 4 times will create polysaccharide is thus able to wrap itself around the oil droplet by inserting blackstrap molasses which contains some sucrose but also the hydrophobic regionsother chemical constituents that are derived from cane juice and are interfering agents so it cant be crystallized evenCarbohydrates when water is removedfructose is most common ketose glucose is most common aldosemolasses formed when most of the sucrose is removedcreates raw sugar which is then treated AldehydeAlcoholHemiacetal CaOH2 is precipitated out with CO2added the alcohol across the double bond to create four single bondsit also absorbs small chemical impurities so they will hemiacetals are unstable intermediates usually but they can be formed as precipitate out with the CaOH2 precipitate more stable cyclical hemiacetalfilter the precipitate out5membered heterocyclic because an oxygen is in the ring ringactivated charcoal ch
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