POL101Y1 Lecture Notes - Mutual Assured Destruction, Checkpoint Charlie, Cuban Missile Crisis

23 views5 pages
Published on 31 Jul 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Political Science
Course
POL101Y1
Professor
POL101
Nov. 29/2010
Cold War Realism
*Last 3 lectures will be used for essay question on exam; everything for multiple choice
1962 the world came close to being annihilated in a nuclear war
The belief was that the missiles and bombers would come over Canada because
the shortest route to the US from the Soviet Union was over the North Pole this was
the Cold War
In this context developed the study of international relations as we know it today
took shape
Origins
Cold War origins in Europe
1948 Europe was chopped up with very few exceptions
By the early 1950s, Europe was divided not only according to political lines, but
also by military lines to prevent an attack from the Soviets
The first big test comes in Hungary in 1956: taken over by the Soviets in 1952,
not apart of the Soviet Union but dominated by the Soviets
Stalin dies in 1953 and the countries within the communist block attempt to
establish some form of independence, although the Soviets would not let them break
away completely
Hungary, 1956
Under Stalin, everyone in the Communist world said Yugoslavia was bad because
it was not apart of the Soviet block; when Stalin dies they try to make up
Told that they did not have to follow everything according to the ways of the
Soviet Union
New leader comes to power, putting into power a reformed communist (still
communist, but allows freedom of speech, elections)
By November, the Soviets decide that they have had enough & invade Hungary
In 1956, the Americans were encouraging the Hungarians to revolt; ran
something called Radio-Free Europe (dont follow anyone except us)
The Hungarians revolted, with the Soviets invading, America did not want to
start WW3
Americans did not allow them to be wiped out
The test was that the US was unwilling to start WW3; the irony is that had they
wanted to they could have militarily won
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Germany
Not only was Europe divided; but the very core of Europe (Germany) was also
divided: East was communist & West was democratic
Soviets threatened to take over East Berlin
East & West Berlin: in 1961 East Germany was losing people, they built a wall to
prevent East Germans from leaving
House at Checkpoint Charlie: where Western Germans would enter, & where
Americans would enter Soviet occupied areas
Two states in existence under the protection of their immense power (nuclear
power, military)
Every once in awhile incidences would occur in which German, Soviet, French,
British, etc., tanks would square off at the border of East & West Berlin (thought to be
where WW3 would begin)
From Confrontation to Stalemate
Nuclear weapons are of a new kind; the problem is that they are too scary to be
used (unlike other military power)
We were put into a new world divided into 2, and where destructive weapons now
existed
This raised the issue that nuclear weapons were not good for defense, but
deterrence
Meant only to be used to stop the other side from using its nuclear weapons OR
incase you were overrun
They wouldnt be used in an ordinary battle, people could not conceive of this
US Monopoly: 1949-1968 was the era in which only the US had nuclear
weapons: Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
US have huge superiority, but the Soviets have just enough to make themselves
scary
Basic idea was that nuclear weapons are there, but they will never be used
(destruction is mutually assured)
The key was not first strike capability, but second strike capability
What made it stable was even if they launched theirs, you would have enough to
destroy them (this doctrine lasted from the 40s through the 80s)
In some ways this was a stable world because each side had its client states, and
encouraged its political and social systems, gave clients weapons and backed up that
weaponry with a conventional commitment to supply that regime with weapons and
soldiers
Proxy Wars
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

*last 3 lectures will be used for essay question on exam; everything for multiple choice. 1962 the world came close to being annihilated in a nuclear war. The belief was that the missiles and bombers would come over canada because the shortest route to the us from the soviet union was over the north pole this was the cold war took shape. In this context developed the study of international relations as we know it today. 1948 europe was chopped up with very few exceptions. By the early 1950s, europe was divided not only according to political lines, but. Stalin dies in 1953 and the countries within the communist block attempt to. Under stalin, everyone in the communist world said yugoslavia was bad because. Hungary, 1956 it was not apart of the soviet block; when stalin dies they t ry to make up. Soviet union communist, but allows freedom of speech, elections)