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Lecture

POL101Y1 Lecture Notes - International Financial Institutions, Mass Politics


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL101Y1
Professor
Jeffrey Kopstein

Page:
of 2
FAILED STATES
Modernization: Sequences
West: State first, nation second, followed by mass politics
The rest, this sequence not always followed
Mass politics before institutional development
Praetorian polities
A modicum of modernization (education, urbanization, industrialization)
Weak institutionalizationparties, bureaucracies, regulation
Weak civil societies
o Voluntary associations that are non-governmental people can join
Democratic politics: programmatic versus clientelisitc/charismatic
o Based on partiesformally similar to ours
o People are paid to vote in lesser developed countries
o Highly personalistic
Institutional overload: raw social power confronting states unmediated by institutions of
civil societies and political parties
International financial institutions apply pressures of their own
Praetorian polities: nationalism and political integration
Post-colonial state precedes “nation.” Problems of “tribalism” and national integration
Dysfunction of parties (elections are ethnic censuses)
Dysfunction of bureaucracies
Economic development policies meant to sustain state rather than create wealth
Praetorian polities: the Coup
Mass politics, weal loyalties to the center, weak institutions create unrest and sometimes civil
was over distributional struggle
Military as institution of upward mobility
Socio-economic institution
Military steps in to restore order “temporarily” (patterns of Latin America, Africa, Asia post-
1960, turkey, Egypt, Syria, Iraq)
Problem: no ideology, so ultimately step aside
But problems that brought military to power remains, bringing them to power again… a
cycle.
Pakistan
Classic case of this:
Colonial heritage
Mass education in cities
Weak institutionalization (1.5 institutions)
Military in politics. Cycles of civilian and military rule
Tribal areas combined with foreign policy considerations
Not a state in the western sense
India and subcontinent
Problems for foreign policy: terrorism plus nuclear weapons
The neo-con approach
Modernizationthe dangerous portal
Terrorism
Democracy as solution
Problem: weak state, think of Iraq
Back to realism
Obama and Bush’s wars
Containment and cost restriction: a problem to be lived with but not solved
Krasner’s article…back to carrots and sticks for Pakistan, but not clear that this really gets at
the issue