POL201Y1 Lecture Notes - Neocolonialism, Modernization Theory, Institute For Operations Research And The Management Sciences

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24 May 2011

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May 18- Theories of development I Nordia
(PP- power point heading)
Idea of progress crucial in development
idea of change and change for the better
PP- we all think we know what dev. means but diff. understandings
above idea of progress is important (change for the better)
idea of change’ for the ‘better
PP-change away from something
because change is inherent in dev. we think of change away from something and toward something else
question of what dev. is (what your developing away from and what towards is often ideological, not neutral
that idea (of what to move towards)is informed by own assumptions and beliefs of what is good, desired and
what a society should value
your political values inform the kinds of development you have in mind**
large disagreement on notion of dev.
PP-idea of development
Dev. means:
change (for the better), movement, progress
But towards what?
Significant, measurable economic growth
"growth" for modernization theorists is key
industrialization that shapes those institutions is also important
increase in economic growth driven by Industrialization is at core of Modernization.
idea of dev. first emerges within a modernization framework
PP-Notion of dev. informs our terminology
Underdeveloped countries
this term defines countries in terms of what they ‘don’t have.
For many this term is objectionable because it suggests these countries are stuck- doesnt suggest possibility
of progress.
and this idea is opposite of what modernization theorists promote
Developing countries
This was used in response to/instead of above.
this term more positive than above but its issues lie in the opposite of the above term because this suggests
an incredibly optimistic belief.
it didn't capture the reality of all of the states within the categories. This promotes idea that all have the
potential to develop
Less dev. countries (LDCs)
Provides scope for idea that there may be countries way less developed and others a little more dev.
Third World countries
From a time when world divided between West, Soviets, The Rest. (more about Cold war politics)
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May 18- Theories of development I Nordia
The Global South
Associated with people whose politics more on the left (progressive)
not defining these countries by what they dont have, instead each has a distinct identity.
South and North is not meaning literally south and literally north but rather politically etc
we see broad range of terms, each embedded with assumptions of what dev. means etc.
the words we use matter.
PP-The impact of Colonialism
Will give historical background from which idea of term development emerged.
Began being used in 1950s/60’s but brought into consciousness following rise of independence of some
Origins of the term development (particularly used by modernization theorists)lies in colonial era
Colonialism defined-> groups of people from one country exercise political authority over another group.
not to be mistaken with neo-colonialism
in history many examples of colonialism- Western Europe has not always been the dominating power but
true that in last 600 yrs West has played leading role in this.
PP- But for the last 600 yrs, they(WEST) did most of the invading
Two stages in colonialism
1. Mercantilism
Spain, Portugal
focus on precious metals
Mercantilism is a belief that the glory and power of a countries govt directly related to the wealth of its
will boost personal wealth of your royal family hence the focus on gold and silver.
2. Industrialization
Netherlands, England, France etc
start to emerge
need to acquire raw materials for industrial production
these get bound up with industrialization whereas the first stage is focused on looking for gold and silver.
This stage looking for products that can drive their own industrialization (wider range of products become
extracted here from Global south)
Mercantilism shifts in the Industrial age. Get this new generation of power.
not just diff. powers but diff. in kind of economy developing. Also shift in pol. Institution and how they
new economic elites developing where before was royal family.
Monarchy power challenged as the Bourgeoisie emerged. Power shifts from monarchy to parliament
shift within economy- no longer interested in boosting wealth of monarchy now want to support factories
these economic and political shifts drove emergence of the idea of dev.**
PP. Neo-colonialism to “development” (one of the important aspects that has informed modernization
In the first stage very direct idea of development
second stage the way they rationalized shifted. A little less honest about what was actually going on.
by colonizing these counties they believed they were helping these countries to develop.
Patronizing set of discourse emerging to justify colonialism
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