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Lecture

Modernization


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL201Y1
Professor
Sophia Moreau

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Politics of Development t Week 3: September 27th, 2010
Themes from Last Week: Why would Industrial Revolution have happened in Britain but not elsewhere?
Way in which government was implicated in creating the market.
Modernization
- In 1950s was change in field of political science t started to conduct research outside of Europe
and North America
o Driven by impulses: Cold War, decolonization, economic growth
Cold War:
- Began in early 1950s between US and USSR, superpowers tried to divide the world through the
lenses of democracy and communism
o What will make more countries democratic? How can we bring more countries into our
sphere of influence? Dominant concerns of Western superpowers.
Funding for research in global South, CIA and Ford Foundation funded
Decolonization:
- Starting in 1948 with India, most countries manage to become independent in 1950s, mostly
over by 1963
o For first time, politics in parts of the world considered devoid of politics
Before this, colonial power and subjects
Now domestic politics in those countries
x XPX(]Zv(]uoÇ]vZ}u]v}(vZ}}o}PÇUÁv[
place to study political organization and motivation, but many political
scientists were inspired by political uprising against global control,
studied struggles for independence, nationalist struggles
Economic Growth:
- Rise in GDP worldwide, after end of WWII world economy took off
- Economic growth particularly impressive in Western democracies, also existed in Latin America,
Africa, Asia, Turkey
o Strides driven by and resulted in many important changes on the ground (urbanization,
literacy, media engagement, mobility, political participation)
Passing of traditional society
- Political scientists defined development as a product of modernization, viewed countries
through the lens of modernization
o Underdeveloped societies are traditional
- Lerner uses Balgat to illustrate what the features of tradition are
o Isolation
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8km from Ankara, takes 2 hours to get there
Residents rarely leave the village
Not participants in market economy
Only grocer travels routinely to Ankara
No physical mobility
o Lack of Information
One radio, belongs to Chief, invites only a few people to listen to radio with him
and they listen to only one program, then Chief interprets information for them,
mediates limited information available to them
o Chief himself
Meant to stand in for rigid and hierarchical hereditary forms of power
Controls who interviewer speaks to
Present in room when interviews are conducted
Resists giving interviewer access to poorest man
Rigid adherence to status and hierarchy
x No social mobility
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are obedience, courage, and loyalty (traditional Turkish virtues)
x His mindset is limited to that with which he is personally familiar
x Lacks ability to project imagined alternatives to his life
o Lack of empathy
Lack of toleration for difference of alternative opinions
x Values homogeneity, uniformity
x Resists change
Chief is archetype of tradition
Tradition stands in the way of development and modernization
x Traditional values and ways of life must be overcome if modernization is
to gain a foothold
- Grocer
o Emblematic of the future
o Mobile, travels to Ankara regularly
o Familiar with media, reads newspaper, watches movies, listens to radio in coffeehouses,
enjoys listening to news about the world
o Active participant in the market
Buys and sells for a living
Internalized thought processes of market, desire to be wealthy, desire for profit
o Desires and imagination that spread beyond the village
Would like to travel, wishes he has a big grocery store in the city, wishes he
could live in America
x Demonstrates empathy, can imagine change, psychically mobile
o Not a popular figure in village
www.notesolution.com
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