Modernization theorists had it wrong for the most part. Example of industrial revolution
not generalizable. What explains persistent wide disparities in wealth?
64 of 195 countries of world former colonies
Status of former colony and poverty today has correlation. How may have colonialism led to
poverty and underdevelopment?
FIRST READING (Kohli) Nigeria: important to be attentive to starting conditions
(regarding level of development/ per capita income) When asking how long it will take for
one nation to reach development , question must be viewed with starting position ( if Chile
has good things going for it compared to Nigeria in 1950 even though both are considered
underdeveloped; ask does anyone have a head start en route to development. Starting
conditions significant for Nigeria:1) political system 2) slave trade 3) technological capacity
1.POLITICAL SYSTEM: South- Yoruba kingdoms, very little political powers, kings-
chiefs shared diffused power (decentralized), little extractive capacity; therefore easy
to conquer. North: Sokoto Caliphate ; large, central stabilized, common religion,
greater extractive capacity, some resistance to colonial rule Colonialism has
different effects on north and south and this has lasting effects on development
levels and institutions today.
2.SLAVE TRADE: involved in trade since 16th century, loss of most productive
segments of population, today parts of Africa STILL affected
3.TECHNOLOGY: manufacturing limited to food production; technology remains
hand hoe; moves to textiles (cotton,indigo) later on but also rudimentary
TRAITS OF COLONIAL STATE
Indirect rule, minimal state, extractive economy, regional fragmentation and conflict
INDIRECT RULE: Lord Lugard – architect of colonial practice of ruling through chiefs (in
colonizer’s pockets), chiefs that refused removed and deported, lasting effect: tribalism and
despotism (makes chiefs that are backed up by colonizers rather than legitimate rule)
MINIMAL STATE: trying to practice colonialism on the cheap; not willing to spend money
training or sending out civil servants; functionality not goal. Ability to tax translates to
governance. British barely tax citizens making state virtually nonexistent.