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Post Winter Break-Week 13

Political Science
Course Code
Sophia Moreau

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Post Break Lecture January 10, 2011
> Part One of the year was focused on theories of development
> Part Two is all about theories of democracy and linking the two together
- he frames relationships between development and democracy
- contrary to F. Fukuyama the End of History and last man.. who argues that the
advent of a liberal democracy is the final and ultimate form of human government, it
is the highest achievement possible
* Karl Marx’ Teleology based on telos meaning ultimate purpose or goal, was the
study of design and purpose.
- these stages of development lead to the goal;
Primitive Communism
Slave Society
Communism: Final Stage
-Each stage precedes the next, and is therefore not possible w/ the previous stage
-The teleological end point is communism
-Fukuyama uses this analysis and says that democracy and the market are the final
end of history
-He doesn’t meant hat the world will end, rather history has achieved its end-point
-democracy is the highest pint of human organization and the endpoint of history.
Fukuyama says: Kaplan says:
1. Democracy is good 1. Democracy is not necessarily good
2. Democracy is widespread 2. Nor is it widespread
3. Democracy is here to stay 3. Is becoming less democratic/not here to stay

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-Kaplan says democracies are value neutral; will of majority sets the outcome
for policies
-He says the will of the majority sets outcome of policies; i.e. if majority is bad
then the outcome is bad as well e.g. Hitler & Mussolini
-A democracy usually produces what majority of people want
Kaplans definition is both thick and thin
-He introduces a thin dfinition of democracy, which is limited mostly to the
electoral system/mechanism
-Why? The reason he uses this definition is because this is the model being
imported by the IMF/World Bank/USA
-Democracy rests on elections in matters of public policy, and these thin set of
institutions express the will many
-Kaplan says democracy cannot be “exported, however elections can, and when
they are it leads to violence
-He also says democracy is and organic outgrowth of development, if you reach
a certain level of economic growth, a democracy is bound to emerge with time
-Democracy emerged in Europe because they reached a level of complexity and
sophistication in the society, unlike China, some South American and African
P.5: What Economic Conditions Precede a Democracy
- it emerges successfully as a capstone to other social economic achievements
- we assume literacy and education are socio-economic preconditions for democracy
- Why? Because people should be informed in order to make informed decisions
- Democracy imposes certain obligations on its citizens i.e. to be informed and
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