• Democracy of Portugal was the beginning of a long way of democratic expansion that
continued for three decades.
•There were 40 democracies in the world at the time (industrialized European countries,
wealthy countries, several Caribbean, Island states that became independent)
•Since 1974, after the death of Spanish General: Spanish transition to democracy was a
model of negotiated or packed transition
•military rule began to unravel in Latin America (1979-1985): military withdrew in favour
of elected civilian government in Ecuador, Argentina, Peru and Brazil
•by mid 1980s, wave of democratization spread to Asia: first in Philippine, Korea then
•by 1987, third wave has spread to the point where about 2 out of every 5 state in the world
were democracies: all of Western Europe, much of Asia and most of Latin America.
Eastern Europe, Africa and chunks of Asian countries were still non-democratic however
*democratization is thus not universal/global but a regional phenomenon…*
•Fall of Berlin War (1989) and the collapse of Soviet Union (1991) were enormous moment
of democratic transition within third wave Collapse of communism and end of cold
war. Such changing conditions brought profound changes to Africa.
•What people feared about cold war was that it would result in nuclear war. Fortunately it
never happened, but it doesn’t mean cold war was not fought. In fact the two super powers
(U.S. and USSR) were involved in ‘proxy wars’ Korean War and Vietnam War, which
were initially domestic conflict. The super powers were fighting whether the countries /
regions would fall under democratic (US) or communist (USSR / Chinese) influence.
Wars were fought in regions that were strategically important. Many of these were fought
CASE :: War in Angola
•War began when the country gained independence in 1974 as a result of the Coup in
• When Portugal gives up its colonies, including Angola, there are three domestic revolt
groups that begin to fight each other in order to win Angolan government.