closely related to what sine have called “civic virtue”. The difference is that social capital
calls attention to the fact that civic virtue is most powerful when embedded in a sense
network of reciprocal social relations. A society of many virtuous but isolated individuals
is not necessarily rich in social capital.
Human capital investment: education, training etc. Increases human productivity
Social capital refers to institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and
quantity of a societies social interactions… Social capital is not just the sum of the
institutions which underpin a society- it is the glue that holds them together. – WB
Benefits attributed to Social Capital:
Trust between individual This becomes trust between strangers and trust of a broad fabric
of social inst; ultimately it becomes a shared set of values, virtues, and expectation within
society as a whole. Without this interaction, on the other hand, trust decays; at a certain
point this decay begins to manifest itself in serious social problems.. the concept of social
capital contends that building or rebuilding community and trust requires face to face
encounters – Beem 1999
-Lower crime figures
-Higher education achievement
-Better economic growth
If you have social capital you might be able to make up for your lack of physical or
human capital. If you have a poor community, with low physical and human capital but
has high levels of organization it might be able to make up for these lackings. Tightly
connected, aware of needs of community and have trust with one another allows
cooperation that may be able to make up for human and physical capital.
Alexis de Tocqueville, 1835:
American society was uniquely suited to democracy because it was non hierarchical with
open networks, comprised a society of ‘joiners’. Social organization was the backbone of
democracy, not the constitution or other institutions.
Putnam: if you locate democracy and it has these characteristics you associate them.
Preconditions located in social life. Implies that some countries are going to have it and
some aren’t. You need a certain kind of society that is capable of behaving
democratically. Many countries are transitions by building electoral systems and
institutions and institution building. US model is electoral, institutional. Focus on
institution is being rejected because of a lack of change and consolidation of power in
elite. How can we get democracy back down to the level of the people?
What are supposed to be connections between social capital and democracy?