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POL208Y1 Lecture Notes - Single European Act, Treaty Establishing A Constitution For Europe, Snus

Political Science
Course Code
Lilach Gilady

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- regional interaction, integration: economics, security governance
- balance of power governing interactions, but EU? No balance of power, literature based
on security communities literature > communication, but also to stop the destruction of
Europe occurring again; but in 50 years go from destruction to open borders and shrinking
armies stc., go from onepersonals lifespan from total war to states not even planning to
fight each other -> how does this change take place? Security communities literature:
dependable expectations for interactions, long shadow of the future -> mechanism of
governing no longer anarchy but open order
: but right next door is the Middle East; so can you have a theory that tells you all
about the world? Situational? Theories are regionally applicable - when BOP and security
communities meet, differentatiate between regions and how they interact with each other
* ask him to forward papers*
: islands as isolation? Vulnerable?
- regionalism: some governed by BOP, others by anarchy
- Westphalian states a European construct, Territoriality: structure of space -> different
kinds of territoriality, but spread of Westphalian states through colonials, spread of civil
war and failed states because arbitrary borders, constantly opposing a state on a political
community is okay because that is how it will look, not going to look like Europe > states
should fail because inevitable? Ontologically in the discipline of IR because no real states
actually exist, don’t math criteria of states yet why do they call them states or the
international legal idea because built around states, even if legally they don’t match the
criteria of states, so why treat them like states? Jeff Herst -> decertify states? Allow the to
fai? Why buy into European knowledge, categorization? Can have EU and can have Congo?
BUT HOW ABOUT STRUCTURE : open to exploitation, to respect. Power, global politics and
geopolitics exist, anarchy will not go away
International Law
- EU: islands of cooperation in IR, cooperation under anarchy > Canada undergoing major
procurement project, now a lot of equipment is dated and government is spend $250 B in
the next 20 years, big expense - how best to spend money? Effects n military and the
economy? USE PROCUREMENT DOMESTICALLY to drive growth when possible, if not
available then develop -> butter vs. guns, ISI but issues of inefficiency (but innovation,
creating spillover effects that can be used domestically?) - no support that spending on
military will lead to government
- how much should it be driven by economic interests? Social interests?
EU: neofunctionalism, how integration works
EEC - 1957 Treaty of Rome; France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium and
Luxemberg, UK wants ti join afterwards
ECSC, EEC (common market in 12 years), Euratom

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1965: all 3 communities joined togetehr into EC (Euro Community) : must join all 3
1973: UK gets into EC (UK, Ireland and Denmark) : in the early stages of this entity,
everything had to be decided unanimously for important decisions, but things can get
paralyzed and difficult to get decisions through
Growth in these organizations
70s: oil crisis, stagflation (mix of inflation and recession), NTBs -> europessisism, dreams of
common market doesn’t seem to work -more countries want to join EC (Greece, Spain,
Portugal - not democacries for long)
1986: move to put pessimism aside, had been stuck in a rut for20 years, everyone agrees
to the Single European Act that a dream of a market needs to be realized by removing
barriers of trade and integration, increase unity and cooperation, cant rely on the
unanimous vote to qualified majority > 1992, EC to the EU
- a symbolic change for the euro pessimism, moving towards integration
- work best with economic issues (not perfect, require coordination and integration)
because everyone could see the benefit and no threat to sovereignty
- but issues having to deal with defence and foreign policy, integration is bogged down
- once start going deeper into integration, issues that touch on social, political issues will
occur : passport control and immigration isses, harmonized security apparatuses, who pays
for what when labour moves, social issues will not work unless social issues not
: by the time of EU return to a more political agenda, cant limit to economic issues
: fall of the SU, want to join: who should be viable candidates? How big should the
organization be? Thinking of a constitution?
How large should EU be?
- diverse, especially with newly democratized countries who are not as established, diverse
economic interests, culture, history, structures of society economic conditions > too big,
too diverse will it function? 28 countries in EU : challengig proposition to agree on things
and harmonize
HOW FAR SHOULD IT GO? Turkey? Challenge for European identity, question of
geography? Religion? Economy, identity/culture/racism?
Deep identoty questions that need to be resolved; what does Uropean mean, where does
it start and end? What does European identity mean?
ENLARGEEMNT tradeoff: bigger the scope, less depth we have in the meaningfulness of
cooperation, depth of union? At what point does scope start compromising depth? Will
see a 2 tiered apprpach: small European group (6 original members) with own agreements,
cant agree all the time amnd this affects legitimacy of organization as a whole, impliations
about future of the organization
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