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30 Mar 2012

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1. Modernization Thesis (p. 104 Brooks) 1973- definition; societies get modernized, the major
reasons for centralisation are not to be looked in the rules, constitution, the reason why there is
more centralization is because of the forces of advanced modernity that will bring on
modernization. As modernization increases, regionalism decreases, as you modernize
transportation it becomes national, as you develop communication links across the country, as
economy becomes nationalised as you start introducing national programs i.e pension plans,
medi-care, along with development in technology, mobility. As these things increase,
attachments to regions decrease, people now can live in 5 different places in the country even
world, their identity with their origin than decreases. Modernization implies centralization of
institutions. Yet this does not apply to Canada; Smiley says: Modernization has not led to
centralization in Canadian federalised system, the provinces have achieved their authority,
power in decision making. In Canada we see that regionalism is flourishing around, there have
been two referendums in Canada on Quebec issue. Popular culture is more similar across the
country, however political culture is different. Marxist believed that as modernization went on
the historical- political thought lines of religion, language would give away the differences
between the class parties, because the dominant hegemonic classes had been fooling the
working classes through media, propaganda, socialization agents. Regional feelings don’t seem
to decline in Canada, we can say similar thing about sister idea, nationalism which is regionalism
across Canada and then we can apply this idea to Globalization, Canada belongs to UN, NATO,
NAFTA, there is internet access, air travel. Does it make Canadian less Canadian? Not really.
English and French Canadian nationalism are as strong as never, people have strong sense of
national identity. What forces the feelings of regionalism are the provincial governments, their
decision making in tax, the education. Provinces are constantly beaten down by national
government saying that they are ignoring people of regions, a lot of provincial elections are
down on the back of federal government- party says take us, look at what the federals are doing
to us!
2. Metropolis-Hinterland Framework
Metropolis regions- more populated, tend to have high levels of investment and, high capital
concentrated they tend to have more high-tech industries, more manufacturing, it is where
research and development are concentrated its where you have headquarters of corporations i.
e Banks, most decisions about the country are made in metropolis, they have higher income,
more wealth. Ontario, Albert, BC are more metropolis, income in these provinces was higher
than the average of 60 000$ (there also appears a new shift of metropolis towards West, its not
only concentrated in Ontario). Canadian average for manufacturing jobs in 2007 was 12% in
Ontario and Quebec it was 14% in other provinces it was left, manufacture is then concentrated
in Quebec and Ontario-characteristic metropolis regions. Metropolis regions are the active
regions they drive, development, research, manufactures
Hinterland regions- periphery regions, passive regions, they are the ones who ‘receive’ while
active (metropolis) regions drive national economy, culture, institutions. They are sparsely
populated, their economic development is determined by metropolis regions, their investment
comes from somewhere else, there is little manufacture, little research, they are highly
depended on stable, they have far-flaunt transportation-it takes long time to get to places, they
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