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Mar 1 Lecture

Political Science
Course Code
Victoria Wohl

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POL214 - March 1 2011
Canada in the World
1. Independence
- Children of canadian citizens automatically become canadians
- canadian citizenship is highly valued
Self Government
- democratic principle
- an element of self government came to canada when we got responsible government in 1848
- people who executed the laws had to have the support of the popularly elected legislature
- but canada still wasnt an independent state
- when canada was formed in 1867, it moved along the path of self government
- but there were still some things canada could use in an independent country.. Ex., couldnt sign
- only changed in 1871, when the statue of westminster was changed
- another aspect of total independence wasnt there
- it wasnt until 1982 with the constitution that canada could change its constitution without the
british formally signing off
- if canada wanted to change the constitution it had to go to the british
- historically, when it comes to independence canadians havent been so concerned with poltiical
sovereignty but economic and culture
Economic and Culture Sovereignty
- has moved from the british monarch
- 1911, 1988, general elections that revolved around one issue: free trade with the US
- 1911, conservatives were against free trade

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- 1988, conservatives won the election agin and free trade was eliminated with the US
Political Independence
- to canadian nationalists, the political independence is empty if your economy and culture is
controlled by others
- do such arrangements like free trade undermine independence? Historically, canada has been
dependent on foreign trade and foreign investment for its development. What is unique about canada is
how dependent it is on the uSA. Both as a customer for its products and as an investor in the country
- although the reliance on the US as an investor has been reduced in the last 40 years
- from the very beginning of canada, because of canadas proximity to the US, its eben in the shadow
of the US culturally
- difference between english canada and quebec -- quebec has had protective armour of language
whereas we use english
- so quebecors arent as worried that american culture will consume quebecois culture
- you can see it in the types of tv shows quebecois watch in compared to canadians
- some people say that the influence of american culture undermines canadian culture and canadian
values, and canadian public politics
- however canada has quite different public policies
- its position on alot of international issues also differ
- if american culture undermines Canadian values, the question is how are canadians values different
from americans values?
- canadian valeus are more like american values than they are of europeans
- when it comes to the economy -- should the government interfere in the marketplace?
- culturally it does
- foreigners cannot own canadian newspapers, broadcasting radio, television stations
- but canadians are free to own these in other countries
- no american or australian is permitted to buy a canadian newspaper

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- on the cultural front, americans are concerned about things like our broadcast industries and our
print media
- but canada, especially english canada sensitive to its cultural industries, implemented a treaty with
its cultural industry
- there are many more constraints on the european countries than they are on the EU
- overnight last night, the bank of canada kept interest rates where they are, but in europe no country
can control its interest rates
- Similarly in europe, the countries are limited on how much depth they can own up
- canada is sovereign they dont have to answer to anyone else
Chapter 16 in Brooks
- heavy focus on trade and american/canadian ties
2. Canada - US Relations - Economic/Culture/Political & Diplomatic/ Defence & Security
- 40, 50 years ago, the sensation of canadian nationalists was with foreign ownership
- specifically american ownership on canadian economy
- current focus more on trade and investment
- back in early 1970s Silence Surrender’ was published and pointed out that a huge percentage of
canadas 1971 foreign investors controlled 37% of all corporate non financial assets in canada.
Americans controlled 60% of manufacturing in canada. Another thing foreigners cant do in canada is
that they are limited in buying our banks
- canadian banks can buy american banks
- economic relationship is very intimate
- over 100,000 that work in usa on nafta visas
- there are over 70 million canadians that travel to the USA every year
- in December 2010, 4 million canadians went to the USA
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