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POL312Y1 Lecture Notes - Lester B. Pearson, Northwest Passage, Externality

Political Science
Course Code

of 4
ideological and personal differences with Trudeau
Trudeau personally didn't like any of the presidents during his time of office
part of the reason why Canada-US relations weren't good 80s were not good economically
Canada and plural-lateral institutionalism
G7 extremely important
not bilateral relations – Canada was active participant
emerging global change – trade barriers
economic change, beginning of the end for the cold war
Khruschev, USSR
Mulroney becomes PM just as Cold War unwinds
became apparent by the late 80s that the war was over
the defining paradigm for understanding foreign policy had come to an end – massive
transformation in IR
independent decision making at this crucial moment in history
born 1939 (still alive); lawyer by trade
first elected 1983, elected leader of conservative party without membership in parliament –
became MP only a year before becoming PM
similar to Trudeau (who had only been MP for 3 years)
was not an experienced politician, virtually no parliamentary experience
Multoney was largely outsider – turn away from more heavily favoured insiders
Joe Clark remained in politics, ran for leadership and was defeated by Mulroney
when Mulroney became PM he made him secretary of state for foreign affairs – was quite
successful, more distinctive as secretary of state than PM
in 90's Joe Clark became leader of Conservative party again after Mulroney's devastating defeat
Mulroney had controversial personality – corruption questions, backroom politics in Quebec
before he went into politics
as a result of personality and time in office, decision-making, devastation of 93, major policy
decisions he took, he has mixed record
some really high points and other really low points
scholars weary of being too positive about his legacy
Trudeau and Mulroney are two great men in the same period in history, but a lot of similarities
both bilingual, bicultural Quebeckers
Mulroney's from small town Quebec but parents are Irish immigrants – hybrid national
representatives of Quebec at the federal level but fully committed to keep Quebec in the
both were electorally successful on the basis of winning most of the seats in Quebec
took 58 of 70 seats
tremendous element of continuity between Trudeau and Mulroney administrations
shortly after taking office Mulroney said he wanted to establish “super-relations” with US
1985, Reagan visit to Quebec, led to perception that he was committed to being too close to US
and president than most Canadians were comfortable with
he took Canada too close to US (may not be factual understanding of his time in office)
perception that both domestic and foreign policies were shaped to perpetuate American
common grouping together of three leaders – Mulroney, Reagan and Thatcher (Can, US, UK) –
electoral success
personally close, ideologically aligned
all instituted market-based reforms in domestic economies and removed trade barriers
privatized national industry
deregulated industry
attacked unions
pro-market, neo-liberal policies
Mulroney has two enduring legacies
Canada-US free trade
at the time it was highly contentious, divisions in the country
traditional left deeply uncomfortable with idea of free trade with US, felt that it
would be end of Canada as we knew it, assimilation fears, resource colony
free trade is a successful legacy – took a big leap, did something new but was
devastating effect of failed attempts at constitutional inclusion for Quebec
generated public discussion about constitutionalism, showed Quebeckers that the
rest of the country didn't understand dualism, felt more alienated than 1982
majority government in 88, only 2 seats in 1993 elections – smashed party apart
Mulroney's legacy domestically is Bloc Quebecois representing Quebec (division)
represents a brand of conservatism that led to party to electoral catastrophe
PD = coherent
LI = multilateralism, helped to pioneer new consensus
CNR = autonomous, interest-driven (breaking from G7, American policy preferences and
bringing other countries on side)
Major Decisions and Events
1984 Ethiopian Famine
first humanitarian disasters to experience CNN effect
generated concern amongst wealthy industrialized states
perhaps attributable to empathy of Mulroney, Clark and Stephen Louis – public funding for
humanitarian relief, raised significant amounts of relief effort
1985 Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI)
sometimes called Starwars Defence System, missile defence system to intercept USSR
nuclear warheads – Canada was asked to participate
Mulroney government declined to participate in the initiative (despite close with Reagan
and American policy preferences)
1985 Polar Sea incident
September, American coast guard ice-breaking vessel attempted to traverse Northwest
passage – sovereignty
vessels need access to traverse the passage (Canada claims sovereignty over the
passage); we are alone on this stance
Northwest Passage is international strait, any peaceful vessel can traverse it
US dispatches ice breaker without asking Canadian permission but Canadian “escort” was
sent to see them through
established precedence for “agreeing to disagree” and letting this issue not get in the way to
pursuit of other common interests
1985 South African apartheid
one of the better known legacies of Mulroney's government
instigated domestic sanctions against South Africa (doing business there, trade)
coalition of heads of government of Commonwealth against South Africa
Reagan and Thatcher not willing to publicly denounce the regime
ultimately after G7 summit in 1988 Mulroney had successfully created coalition of states
who publicly denounced the regime
1987 2nd Francophonie Summit
formalized the hierarchy within the Francophonie itself
France hosted first Francophonie summit, 1987 Canada hosted in Quebec City – established
hierarchy of France 1st, Canada 2nd
favoured institution because it is one that we enjoy political clout – prestige
one of the most pronounced and formalized role in international affairs (Quebec and New
Brunswick have autonomous delegations)
1988 Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA)
also year that Mulroney won his second mandate – Mulroney didn't force free trade on the
country; three years of negotiation
validation of free trade since he won a majority government against John Turner
1988 Montreal Protocol (ozone depletion)
one of the most important modern environmental agreements – international treaty
phasing out of ozone depleting chemicals – major agreement that implemented regulations
against production of these chemicals
significant Canadian accomplishment since we hosted it, Canada took leadership role in an
area that is not significantly Canadian strength
1990 Organization of American States (OAS)
brought Canada into closer alignment in this hemisphere – Western hemisphere (Central,
South America, Caribbean)
English-speaking, presence of diaspora populations, encouraged to join
US didn't really want Canada to join, presence of Canada was not welcome development
since it would dilute their influence
1990-1 Persian Gulf War
UN-mandated, legal intervention, Canada joins this effort – first time Canada participates in
a combative war (since Korean War)
dramatic departure from Pearsonian peacekeeping image
1991 US-Canada Air Quality Agreement (acid rain)
end or reduce acid rain that was being caused by American industrial factories
bilateral agreement, one that we were very much concerned about – environmental
externality that we were receiving
1992 Rio Earth Summit (UNCED)
massive multilateral summit event, series of conventions
UN convention of climate change was signed, global multilateral framework
implementation gap but still significant foreign policy achievement
1992-3 Somalia Affair
highlights arrival of Canadian armed forces in third generation peacekeeping