POL326Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Unilateralism, Hegemony, Fasttrack

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15 Mar 2018
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POL326
Lecture 1/22
Attacks on Gaza Strip
Assad government (Syrian relationship)
Turkey
USA did not support Assad government/Al Qaeda/ISIS: one ally (Kurdish Resistance Group in
Syria)
-Had close links with Kurdish group in Turkey (considered by Turkish government to be a
terrorist group)
-Consistently getting arms and training from US/Turks have invaded Syrian territory to go after
these terrorist groups that are allied ith the U“.
American Economic Foreign Policy:
-Foreign economic policy in the US arguably took precedent over every other aspect of FP for
2/3 of American history.
-The basic rejection of American foreign entanglements was intended not to create an
isolationist country (self-sufficiency; insulating itself from world markets) but rather to avoid FP
engagements that were typical of European great powers.
-Did not intend an isolationism.
-Unilateralism (preserving ability of US to act in self-interest without constraints of alliances
that might be negatively affected by US policy decisions)
-Dai that as reated as that foreig eooi poli represeted high poli priorit
of American government)
-Foreign policy in traditional sense (security policy) see as lo poli; loer priorit.
-US exceptional; having the luxury to prioritize foreign economic policy.
-This basic idea continued throughout 19th century and into 20th century (economic policy
trumping traditional foreign policy)
-American involvement in WW1: first attempts to play a more dominant global role by creating
institutions like League of Nations.
-Freedman piece: initiated by Wilson because economic interests (extent to which traditional
elites in US viewed economics as more important tha adaig U“’ posture as a gloal
power)
-US was divided (ruling groups): on one hand traditional industrial sectors (manufacturing, etc).
benefitted from protectionism.
-Saw international competition and free markets as threat.
-Threat to ability to compete (won out and prevented acceptance of Versailles Treaty)
-US was not going to emerge as global hegemon until WW2.
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-By WW1, significant sectors that departed from this. (sector of banking and mining): had
extensive investments in other parts of the world in favor of transition of US playing more
dominant role in international political economy.
WW2:
-Brought about trasitio of U“FP fro lo priorit to eig high priorit, trupig
economic interests. (economics to security)
-Establishment of UN, NATO, and OAS.
-Establishment of Bretton Woods System (economics-negotiated in NH, Bretton Woods/ and in
meeting the victorious powers of WW2 established core institutions that would govern global
economics, general agreement on tariffs and trade (World Trade Organization), the World
Bank (international bank for reconstruction and redevelopment).
-US viewed maintaining sphere of influence in western Europe necessary for maintaining free
world.
-Restoring western Europe for consumption of American industrial goods (Marshall Plan, and
World Bank worked to achieve these basic goals)
[German Economic Miracle, enormous successes, then began to turn attention to developing
countries and has become chief provider of development aid in the 3rd world]
-World Bank to a large extent, created by the US (reflected enormous power); provide credits
for reconstruction to states (not private borrowers)
1 problem with that: if you lend a lot of money for economic development to states,
governments main drivers of development: likely to lead to a situation in which state owns
much of the infrastructure and private sector, could lead to a kind of socialism (runs counter to
preferences of US [free market ethos]
-Resolutio: World Bak is a ledig of last resort: has eoe ore prooued i
period after initial establishment, Europeans were not in a position to borrow
extensively for reconstruction.
-Country would have to demonstrate to World Bank that they exhausted all possibilities,
only then will World Bank provide funds.
-World Bank provides funds to states that are otherwise unable to make profits (infrastructure
investment)
-World Bank and US Aid could be considered as help for development of countries trying to
recover from military conflict/develop and could be understood as subsidies to domestic
industries.
Ex.) African country-US giving money for port facilities: who would they hire?
-First world companies
World Bank: -Certainly has had some successes, but also pushes governments to borrow from
banks.
International Monetary Fund:
-A lender: all countries that are members pay a certain percentage of GDP into the fund in
order to get drawing rights on the fund.
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