POL326Y1 Lecture 10: State Department Lecture

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26 Aug 2019
Bureaucracy III: Intel Community
Midterm: 1h; two essay questions, answer 1 (quality matters more); IDs worth 10 pts each; @ UC. 266/263
State Department and Review
Walt: offered a counterpoint in the mismanagement of the State Department
While America began its history with a small federal government, it expanded in the 21st century in ways
regarding bureaucracy; literature focuses on 4 expansions (ex. New Deal, WWII, Cold War and NSC Act
’47—created modern defense department and intelligence agencies that make up the core of USFP)
o 60s: Johnson’s great society expansion
o 9/11
most important was in ’47: NSC
Progress Act 1924: tried to make a state department and foreign service but most analysts see the
American state department as underdeveloped
o This enormous complexity presents a fundamental problem of how to handle this huge apparatus
NSC ’47: NSC
Intends to help president manage complex set of organizations and solve certain problems in terms of
presidential management styles
o FDR dint have close relations with high officials in military, but rather low
The purpose of the NSC was to force the president to act through a chain of demand
3 Basic Functions
o provide advice to the president
o deal with the issue of America as a democracy, may have a difficult foreign policy and thus may
fluctuate from one administration to another
created consistency through the transitions
o coordinated various activities of bureaucracies so they don’t function at cross-purposes
NSC was to include president, secretary of defense/state, top officers in navy, air force, chair of the
National Security resource board, and VP
o NSC never functioned the way it was intended to
o NSC continues to be an important body in providing advice to the president; but in terms of long-
term advising,
NSC-68: produced in ‘52
o Spells out the core of the foreign policies of America during the Cold War
o Advises president to pursue polices of deterrence/containmentthe core of USFP during Cold War
‘til the 70s
o Policy changed slightly with regards to deterrence with various forms of arms control; more
importantly, the abandonment of containment in favor of rollback
This emerged in Carter’s administration and adopted by Reagan—not just to contain Russia
but to undermine it
Coordination: NSC failed to fulfil this function
o US has an incoherent foreign policy on many different level
o Different components of the executive purpose different goals that are contradictory
o Luttwak: China
Commerce and treasury view through economics and see China as an opportunity to extend
trade, cooperation and push greater economic integration
Example: accepting China into WTO and giving it the most favored nation with regards to
access to American markets
o Agencies tied to NSC issues view China as an adversary, a state to be contained
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