POL326Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Rogers Act, 40 Minutes, Rex Tillerson

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15 Mar 2018
School
Course
POL326
Lecture 11/27
Test: East/West Room UC266, UC273, 2nd floor, will probably start at around 20 after.
Last Names: A-L UC266
Identifications:
6 Terms/Significance of 4 From Lectures and Readings
2 Essay Questions/Answer 1: broader themes of the course
-Both sections-have a choice
How much is expected on essays/identifications? Quality not quantity
-Good, short answer is usually better than long, rambling one.
-Think about question/make outline.
-Basic essay format-Introductory paragraph.
-Read question carefully and answer each portion of question completely.
Time Limit: 1 hour, spend roughly 5 minutes on each identification
-Leave 40 minutes for essay
Last Week: U.S. federal government started small but expanded in waves.
1. New Deal: domestic programs
2. World War II/Cold War (most important expansion): National Security Act of 1947 (Defense
Department)
3. 1960s: Johnson’s Great Society Program
4. Aftermath of 9/11 attacks-Creation of Department of Homeland Security
1947: Most important expansion
1 expansion of bureaucracy that is often not mentioned is the expansion of State Department
after Rogers Act: 1924
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Expansion of bureaucracy in 1947: National Security Council
-Intended to be a mechanism to help President manage complex set of organizations and to help
solve certain problems that appeared in Presidential management in WW2
-FDR did not have close relations with any top military officials, and preferred to act through
various intermediaries (in the military) of lower rank.
-Tends to be resented due to interfering in chain of command.
National Security Council: forcing President to act through chain of command.
3 Basic Functions of NSC:
1. Provide advice to President.
2. Deal with another problem: U.S. foreign policy was likely to fluctuate-create consistency in
foreign policy, NSC was to be engaged in long-term planning for the U.S.
3. Intended to coordinate activities of various bureaucracies so that they don’t cross.
Originally NSC was to include President, Sec of Defense, State, top officers in main branches of
military, Chair of National Security Resource Board, and Vice President to force President to act
through chain of command.
-NSC never functioned in the way that it was intended to.
-In regards to advice, NSC-important body providing advice to Presidents, but in terms of
planning capacity, only 1 example of NSC functioning in this capacity.
-Production of document NSC-68.
-Produced in 1952: spells out the core of the foreign policies of the United States during the
Cold War.
-Advises President to exercise deterrence and containment. Core of American policies in Cold
War from end of WW2-arguably until the 1970s.
-1970s: policy changed slightly in regard to deterrence.
-The abandonment of containment in favor of roll-back that began to emerge in Carter
Administration and adopted by Reagan administration.
-In regard to coordination, NSC largely failed to fulfill this function.
-Numerous scholars continue to argue that U.S. has an incoherent foreign policy; as
different components of executive bureaucracy serve different, contradictory roles.
Example: China, two contradictory foreign policies depending on which bureaucracy you
look at.
-Economic lens, adversary perception: completely different directions. (No easy answer for
which is dominant)
-NSC has failed in regard to coordination function because:
-Nature of bureaucracies as a role: President has to generally appoint top 3 or 4 levels of
bureaucracies with regards to state departments.
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