POL469H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Kyoto Protocol, Contract, Westerlies
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IDSB02- Development and the Environment
Lecture 4: January 31st 2012
LAST WEEK OVERVIEW
Breaking the Sod
Soil erosion (3 ways- plough, intensification of agriculture etc.
How soils are formed (weathering- physical, chemical etc.)
Five soil forming factors? Climate etc.
Classification of soils by texture (sand, silt, clay – differences between them; clay have a net
negative charge effecting CEC and clay has internal layers giving it a massive surface area)
Soil structure and stability: discourage erosion biological material etc.
Tropical soils – ferralsols; red soils phosphorus less available (phosphorus fixation etc.)
Temperate soils vs. tropical soils (know the characteristics)
AT the equator has high inputs of energy so air rises giving a zone of low pressure; and through
high pressure zones that move into the low pressure zones
3 cells: Hadley, ferrel, and polar
Knowledge of forces (Pressure gradient force + Coriolis effect and friction) allows us to construct
a basic model of how air moves
Air moves north in the northern hemisphere and south in southern hemisphere- when it hits the
colder zones it descends and contracts (dries) to the surface – creates a high pressure zone; the
air then flows from high pressure to low pressure zones
Sub-tropical high pressures zone is where the air is drying; where we find deserts
Where the air is rising is where there are tropical rainforests and tropical rain
Explains why there is cloud cover circling the equator
STHPZ- sub tropical high pressure zone
Air moving north form the STHPZ increases in momentum and creates a strong belt of winds
moving from W ->E creating westerlies winds
At poles eventually the air sinks with colder temperatures = polar cells
ITCZ- inter tropical convergences zone there is an equatorial low in this area;
High pressure zones are more stable (less rain etc.)
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