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Political Science
Joseph Wong

POL …man is by nature a political animal… and he who is unable to live in society, or who has no need because he is sufficient for himself Big Themes  Democracy, dictatorship, war and peace,   Try to understand the world in a systematic way so it will make a sense of the world we live in  How do we make sense of it  By simplifying, by focusing on what matters and ignoring what doesn’t Democracy and war Is the world becoming more democratic and more peaceful  Francis Fukuyama was one of the first thinkers about this theme, in 1989 summerm he realized something was changing, supporting himself on Hegel.  The idea of liberty, you see materiality,  Hegel looks at human history, he sees the march of the spirit History of Human conciouness The history of people, or is is the history of wars, or is the history of ideas, (people and wars pass, but ideas remain, are only pass when they meet with greater or bigger ideas) War, classs of ideas Different consciousness Industry, economy, religious practice are material manifestation but what’s really going on is the ideas behind those practices Ideas and the organiation of human society Really big ideas  organized by human society Ancient society  Socrates, etc READ Medieval society  Church READ Liberal Democratic state  The ideas of what we call freedom, markets, stock, etc Hegel and the battle of jena,  liberty, equality,and fraternity History is the history of ideas, and those ideas will never be surpassed, then history has stopped, no other ideas come around to challenge them CNN headlines, nothing changes Hegel … What’s essential, the really big ideas, Fukuyama… Hegel was right but he lost some of it New ideas, communism, Nazism THE REAL REAM the realm of ideas, big challenger to liberal democracy (fascism and communism) have been defeated Challengers Communism, is there but only in (cuba, korea, etc) it is a powerless idea, since nobody will die for that idea Religious beliefs, Christian, jewish, Islamic … not universal  to be an idea it should be universal WHERE DOES IT LEAVE US?  Word of peace, trade, democracy  Even there are wars, they are not wars of big ideas,  Examples: Russia,  WE SHOULD LOOK FOR BIG IDEOLOGICAL CHALLENGERS  IN THIS SENSE, history is over, liberal democracy is the end stage CLASH OF COVILIZATIONS An examination of Huntington’s arguments Cold war  berlin wall falls  comuunisms as a rival idea was out of game  After this situation a sense of fear and questios grapped the world The future of the world after cold war, (two views)  Fukuyama and Huntington Fukuyama looks at the situations through the lense of a victor  therefore his vision could be considered biased For some people from different situations, the idea of the victory of liberalism is arrogant Sam Huntington  more sceptical view ( Read the clash of civilizations) 1974 – 2012  53 countries experienced democracy breakdowns, 50 percent went back to democracy  His view is deeply influenced by 9 – 11 , a different view Alternative World Order ? For Huntington, fukuyama’s world is not as the real word, it is a narrow reading of world history  … Liberal peace and prosperity … are illusory o Inequality o Constested citizenship o Exclusion  Fukuyama describes the end of conflicts between states, therefore he might be only describing the end history of western ideology, communism was a western ideology  As trade increases countries become more interdepent, and interdependent economies don’t go to war  We should see more respect, liberty and peace if we follow this ide
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