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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

POL101Y1 October 1 , 2012 LEC#4 -The Rise of the West and Marxism- (Modernity) Europe  Economic modernization started in great Britain th th  17 – 18 century’s innovations began spreading across Europe from United Kingdom  British got rich from multiple plunders, thefts from other nations Origins of modern economy th th  Twin revolutions 16 -19 centuries agricultural and industrial  Agricultural revolution: may be the hyperbole to the word revolution Industrial revolution th  Originates in late 18 century England  More appropriately designated as a revolution  Cotton processing had hugely changed  1760-2.5 million pounds  1787- 22 million pounds  1837- 365 pounds of cotton  Produced huge change in domestic consumption Consequences  Luxuries came to be seen as mere decencies and decencies came be seen as necessities  Distribution highly uneven but now creation of middle class that had risen from manual labor to professional or entrepreneurial status Social results  1.) Capacity to produce surplus  2.) Increasing complexity of division labor  3.) New forms of social consciousness Political consequences  Demise of royal absolutism  Victory of parliament over kings  Selection of leaders by election  Rise of political parties  Universal rights without reference to class  Need to accommodate new groups within politics Karl Marx  How to analyze a society?  What does one look for first  Kings and queens?  Dominant ideas, sprit of the times  What kind of food they eat alcohol they drink  Feuerbach and the critique of German idealism (Hegel)  “The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways: the point is to change it” –Marx, Theses on Feuerbach  Materialism: what is god? Taking everything that’s good inside us and putting it outside of us (god) - god did not create god men created god  Why do we even need religion? Injustice, You must go to the material causes. Critique of Hegel: historical materialism  Hegel: consciousness creates society  Marx disagrees: consciousnes
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