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Civilian violence and war.docx

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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Civilian violence and war Ancient Greece to the holocaust November 25, 2013 Essay question and mc The government we choose has the right on our behalf to enforce the order with violence. Is the violence legitimate? Violence is at the core of the whole operation. The use of violence against your neighbor for political ends. The holocaust was not a distance bureaucratic event but a far more intimate one. Violence and war - war is normally thought of as state on state - violence is generally monopolized by state - weber- State: monopoly of legitimate use of violence within a given territory. - Civil war is something different - Means that the state has broken down and is unable to perform its function in regulating civilian violence - Either no or multiple sovereignty - What is the difference between civil war and revolution? (sequence) - Very difficult to make sense of neighbor on neighbor violence - (jewish non jewish violence in Canada) Ancient Greece Peloponnesian War - 431 to 403 BCE - Backstory: 480BCE: beating back Persians, Athenians lead the way (almost single handed- Delian league) - 479- 432 BCE Rise of Athens versus Sparta - contrasts: land versus maritime, oligarchy versus democracy, military versus commercial orientation (Athens versus Sparta) - democracy and leadership (Pericles) - Reason for war: rise in power of Athens and alarm it caused in Sparta and its allies - Early balance of power theory - The enemy of your enemy is your friend - Thuc: Spartans afraid: “the Athenians might become too powerful, seeing the greater part of Greese was already in their hands” I think the truest cause, but the least spoken War - Motives: fear, honour, interest - Sparta in effect led by lesser allies to chose a policy it would not have chosen on its own. Concyra (Corfu) 427 BCE - “oligarchs” versus “democrats” each with external backers - Civil war “now in time of peace they could have had no pretext and would not have been so eager to call then in, but because it was war and allies were to be had for either party to hurt their enemies and strengthen themselves at the same time, invitations to intervene” Civil War and restraint - “every form of death was seen at this time; and there was nothing people would not do, and more: fathers killed their sons; men were dragged out of the temples and then killed hard by; and some who were walled up in the temple of Dionysus died inside of it”. Human nature and war - “civil war brought many hardships to the cities, such as happen and will always happen as long as human nature is the same, although they may be more of less violet or take different forms, depending on circumstances in each case. In peace and prosperity, cities and private individuals are better minded because they are no plunged into the necessity of doing anything against their will; but war is a violent teacher; it gives most people impulses that are as bad as their situation when it takes away easy supply of what they need for daily life.” War and language - “and they reversed
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