POL100 25 november 2013.
Civilian Violence and War.
From Ancient Greece to the.Holocuast
● Violence and War
○ War is normally thought of as state on state.
○ Violence generally monopolized by state.
○ Weber--state: monopoly of legitimate use of violence within a given territory.
○ Civil war is something different.
○ Collapse of state, collapse of sovereignty.
○ Either no or multiple sovereignties.
○ What is difference between civil war and revolution? (sequence).
○ Very difficult to make sense of neighbour on neighbour violence.
● Ancient Greece.
○ Peloponnesian War:
■ 431 TO 403 BCE.
■ Backstory: 480BCE: Beating back persians, athenians lead the way
( almost single handed the delian league)
■ 479 to 432BCE rise of Athens versus Sparta.
■ Contrasts: Land versus maritime, oligarchy versus democracy. military
versus commercial orientation.
■ Democracy and leadership (Pericles).
■ Reason for war: Rise in power of Athens and alarm it caused in Sparta
and its allies.
■ Thus: Spartans afraid: ' the Athenians might become too powerful, seeing
the greater part of Greece was already in their hands'…
■ I think the truest chase but the last spoken of was the growth of a
■ Motives: Fear, honour, interest, Sparta in effect led by lesser allies to
chose a policy it would to have chosen on its own.
○ Corcyra (CORFU):427BCE.
■ "Oligarchs" versus "Democrats" each with external backer.
■ Civil war: "Now in time of peace they could have had no pretext and
would not have been so eager to call them in , but because it was war,
and allows were to be had for wither party to hurt their enemies and
strengthen themselves at the same time"
■ Then he talks about what happens when sovereignty disappears. : "Every
form of death was seen at this time and there was nothing people would
not do and more: fathers killed their sons: men were dragged out of the
temples and then killed hard by and some who were walled up in the
temple of dionysus died inside of it".
● Human Nature and war: ○ " Civil war brought many hardships to the cities, such as happen and will always
happen as long as human nature is the same although they may be more or less
violent or take different forms, depending on circumstances in each case" .
■ He is saying to survive a war you will become a bad person.
■ War is a cruel teacher.
● War and Language:
○ "And they reversed the usual way of using words to evaluate activities. 111
considered boldness was counted as loyal manliness; prudent hesitation was
held to be cowardice in disguise, and moderation merely the clock of an unmanly
nature. A mind that could grasp the good of the whole was considered wholly
■ Language is not just a fe