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POL101Y1 LEC04 FALL2012

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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

October 1, 2012 POL101: Lecture 3 The Rise of the West and Marxism Origins of Modern World Economth th  Twin “revolutions” 16 – 19 centuries, agricultural and industrial  Agricultural revolution: may be hyperbole to use the word “recvolution” here  Tenhnological evolutions that allowed this to be possible (and lead to surplus) came through over time  The rise of agricultural surplus Industrial revolution th  Originates in late 18 century england  More appropriatately designated as a revolution  Amount of iron processed into steel in English factories produced huge changes in domestic consumption IR Consequences  There were also consequences – luxuries came to be seen more as “decencies” and decencies came to be seen as necessities  This still exists in modern society. Who would not have a refrigerator today?  Distribution highly uneven but now creation of middle class has risen from manual labour to professional or entrepreneurial status (business men) IR Social Results  Huge sociological changes – new groups of people who weren’t around before  There were social results – the capacity to produce surplus  increasing complexity of division of labour (pre-modern societies)  EX: think aboriginals’’ religious figure: called a medicine man. If you had a health problem or a spiritual problem you would go to the same person. Now days it’s not the same thing. Modern societies tend to separate those two functions.  As society becomes more complex there becomes a regular need to regulate this complexity  New forms of social consciousness - no longer accept an authority unquestionably (resistance) Political Consequences  Demise of Royal Absolutism  As these giant changes take place queens, kings, and nobles begin to lose their status. They either redefine themselves (see queen Elizabeth, not actually a ruler but still a public figure)  Victory of parliament over kings  Power of parliament if selected increasingly by competitive election – leaders are voted upon  Rise of political parties – parties rise up to represent interest within society – typically opposing parties are those that represent “old, traditional order” versus “new, modern ideas”  Universal rights without reference to class – applies to everyone  Essentially, as society becomes wealthier, more and more people participate within rule  New institutions need to accommodate new groups within politics Karl Marx  Wrote the “Communist Manifesto”  Very sarcastic – good sense of humour – also very educated/intelligent  Marx’s thoughts: How to analyze a society? What does one look for first? Queens and Kings? Dominant ideas? What kind of food they eat/alcohol they drink? Marx and Materialism  Feuerbach and Critique of German idealism (Hegel)  The critique has to come with the analysis of the most important idea: Religion  Materialism: What is God? – What the German materialists said was that when we talk to God, in essence we are taking everything that is good inside of us, and we are putting it outside of ourselves. We take it, and we put it above us, and turn it into an alien other thing that we can’t possibly understand, but God does.  Leads us to the idea that God did not create man, Man created God. (For Marx, living in a fairly religious world, this was seen as a radical idea)  Why do we need religion? Injustice – You need to have a theory that justifies injustice – you must go to the material causes Critique of Hegel: Historical Materialism  Hegel:
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