Poli Sci: The End of History 3/5/2012 9:43:00 AM
The End of History
*New Major in Public Policy (more info on the Poli Sci web site)
NO TXT BOOK Boooya!
All the readings are on Black Board
- Politics in some way, shape or form are unavoidable by every human. By
nature we are political animals Aristotle.
- To rid ourselves of fear we desire to be understood
- History of the world is history of philosophy
- Industry, economy and religious practice are material manifestation but
whats really going on is the ideas
- Really big ideas are those that organized human society
- Hegel: liberty, equality and fraternity (18 C German Philosopher) he
believed the battle of Jena changed the world view 
- Her argues that the above is the end of history
- No new forth coming ideas can challenge the BIG big idea
- it is theory alone that helps us transcend this poverty of the human
- Fukuyama: Believed that 1989 the fall of the Berlin wall was the BIG
- Big challenges to the liberal democracy had been defeated in realm of
- Today there are far less people willing to die for or betray their country for
a powerless idea such as communism
- Christian, Jewish, Islamic fundamentalism are not universal ideas and
there for not a real challenge however so they are out there
- Our world is of Peace, Trade and Democracy
- Wars of BIG ideas are far less scene in todays world
- We should look for the big ideological challenger. This is where history will
- Believe that there is an end of conflict in the west states (Europe) Joseph Wong (second lecturer/The other side)
The clash of the civilizations: remaking world order (book: Professor
Huntington, Samuel P)
He is reacting to Fukuyama, what will the world be like post cold war?
According to Huntington : Fukuyama had a very narrow reading of world
Democracies dont fight under democracy IR theory
Liberal peace and prosperity are illusory
The universal civilization can only be the product of a universal power
Huntingtons main idea or question is who are we? also another of his
We are supposed to be living in the era of prosperity and peace however
there have been more total casualties in the post cold war battles then
during. 8.8 million to 10million. How can this be?
He has a narrow view of what it is to be American (WASP)
Why Clash? The world isnt about units of civilizations or areas but about
Difference = Conflict
Interests = Conflict
Kinship = Conflict
(Huntington is slightly ignorant and fears the loss of western dominant)
How would Huntington explain Canada and its commitment to
multiculturalism perhaps he could touch on The separatists just because
we are with out physical war doesnt mean we are without conflict and
theoretical war. The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of
3/5/2012 9:43:00 AM
- Liberty of Modern people is related to the independence of individuals to
chose their own religion, occupation, belief system etc
- Liberty of Ancients is built upon the collective which subsequently revoked
more individual rights to basic liberties we today we take for granted. Ie: the
freedom of religious association, occupation, group association etc
Take Spartan life for example, the moeus controlled every aspect of
life from public to private. Even the frequency in which they are
allowed to visit their new wife was regulated.
- The illusion of individual power was represented in the collective in Ancient
Liberty. as a subject of the collective body he can himself be deprived of his
status, stripped of his privileges, banished, put to death, by the free choice
of the whole of which he is a part.
- War precedes commerce, because they are merely two different ways of
achieving the same endnamely, coming to own what one wants to own
- Athens is one of the rare cases of ancients history that tries to bridge the
gap between modern and ancient liberties.
- Ancient Athens there was a strong sense of pride in the individuals vote.
More or less because the individual could see a difference being made by a
single vote because the city states were of less population. Today that pride
is much less impactful. We fell more like a number then a person with
impact, lost in the chaotic mess of our democracy.
Modern benefit of liberty is to be secure in our private benefits
- The individuals should be enslaved so that the people can be free.
- In this day and age it would be easier to turn enslaved men into Spartans
instead of free men into Spartans (Paraphrased)
- social power damaged individual independence in every possible war,
without destroying the need for it.
- No one has the right to tear: etc I disagree on the grounds of a military
- institutions must accomplish the destiny of the human race; Constant and the Rise of Liberalism 3/5/2012 9:43:00 AM
- Born in the aftermath of the French Revolution
- How should free people govern themselves? Was his main proposed
- Benjamin Constant (1767-1830)
- Freedom from tyranny is the freedom from constraint not the freedom to
do things but the freedom to not be stopped from doing anything
- Viewed liberty as the participation in the rule of politics and to play a roll in
the shape and direction in which society was going to take
- Ancient view of liberty is being governed by themselves ie: the Greeks
governed by Greece
- Domination and lack of freedom can be more then political it can be
economical ie: Canada is economically dominated by the USA
- the fundamental sense of freedom is the freedom from chains, from
imprisonment, from enslavement by others. The rest is extension of the
sense or else metaphor Isaiah Berlin, Two concepts of Liberty
- War and most political decisions are cast by the terms of commerce
Contradictions of Constant
- Modern liberty is better then both than ancient liberty and pre-modern
despotism (French Kings)
- Moderns care more about freedom from
- We prefer representatives other then direct government influence
- The liberties of the ancients creeps back in through modern notions of
citizenship and virtue! But all great thinkers are contradictory!
- The vast majority of society was sustenance farmers living crop by crop
not of excess.
- Non market society
- Family life was a form of collective responsibility mostly because the size of
the families were much larger with generations upon generations living in
very close proximity to each other