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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Poli Sci: The End of History 3/5/2012 9:43:00 AM Poli Sci The End of History *New Major in Public Policy (more info on the Poli Sci web site) NO TXT BOOK Boooya! All the readings are on Black Board Jeffery - Politics in some way, shape or form are unavoidable by every human. By nature we are political animals Aristotle. - To rid ourselves of fear we desire to be understood - History of the world is history of philosophy - Industry, economy and religious practice are material manifestation but whats really going on is the ideas - Really big ideas are those that organized human society th - Hegel: liberty, equality and fraternity (18 C German Philosopher) he believed the battle of Jena changed the world view [1806] - Her argues that the above is the end of history - No new forth coming ideas can challenge the BIG big idea - it is theory alone that helps us transcend this poverty of the human condition. - Fukuyama: Believed that 1989 the fall of the Berlin wall was the BIG idea - Big challenges to the liberal democracy had been defeated in realm of ideas - Today there are far less people willing to die for or betray their country for a powerless idea such as communism - Christian, Jewish, Islamic fundamentalism are not universal ideas and there for not a real challenge however so they are out there - Our world is of Peace, Trade and Democracy - Wars of BIG ideas are far less scene in todays world - We should look for the big ideological challenger. This is where history will happen again - Believe that there is an end of conflict in the west states (Europe) Joseph Wong (second lecturer/The other side) The clash of the civilizations: remaking world order (book: Professor Huntington, Samuel P) He is reacting to Fukuyama, what will the world be like post cold war? According to Huntington : Fukuyama had a very narrow reading of world history Democracies dont fight under democracy IR theory Liberal peace and prosperity are illusory Inequality Contested citizenship Exclusion The universal civilization can only be the product of a universal power Huntingtons main idea or question is who are we? also another of his books We are supposed to be living in the era of prosperity and peace however there have been more total casualties in the post cold war battles then during. 8.8 million to 10million. How can this be? He has a narrow view of what it is to be American (WASP) Why Clash? The world isnt about units of civilizations or areas but about behavior Difference = Conflict Interests = Conflict Kinship = Conflict (Huntington is slightly ignorant and fears the loss of western dominant) How would Huntington explain Canada and its commitment to multiculturalism perhaps he could touch on The separatists just because we are with out physical war doesnt mean we are without conflict and theoretical war. The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of the Moderns. 3/5/2012 9:43:00 AM - Liberty of Modern people is related to the independence of individuals to chose their own religion, occupation, belief system etc - Liberty of Ancients is built upon the collective which subsequently revoked more individual rights to basic liberties we today we take for granted. Ie: the freedom of religious association, occupation, group association etc Take Spartan life for example, the moeus controlled every aspect of life from public to private. Even the frequency in which they are allowed to visit their new wife was regulated. - The illusion of individual power was represented in the collective in Ancient Liberty. as a subject of the collective body he can himself be deprived of his status, stripped of his privileges, banished, put to death, by the free choice of the whole of which he is a part. - War precedes commerce, because they are merely two different ways of achieving the same endnamely, coming to own what one wants to own - Athens is one of the rare cases of ancients history that tries to bridge the gap between modern and ancient liberties. - Ancient Athens there was a strong sense of pride in the individuals vote. More or less because the individual could see a difference being made by a single vote because the city states were of less population. Today that pride is much less impactful. We fell more like a number then a person with impact, lost in the chaotic mess of our democracy. Modern benefit of liberty is to be secure in our private benefits - The individuals should be enslaved so that the people can be free. - In this day and age it would be easier to turn enslaved men into Spartans instead of free men into Spartans (Paraphrased) - social power damaged individual independence in every possible war, without destroying the need for it. - No one has the right to tear: etc I disagree on the grounds of a military draft. - institutions must accomplish the destiny of the human race; Constant and the Rise of Liberalism 3/5/2012 9:43:00 AM - Born in the aftermath of the French Revolution - How should free people govern themselves? Was his main proposed question. - Benjamin Constant (1767-1830) - Freedom from tyranny is the freedom from constraint not the freedom to do things but the freedom to not be stopped from doing anything - Viewed liberty as the participation in the rule of politics and to play a roll in the shape and direction in which society was going to take - Ancient view of liberty is being governed by themselves ie: the Greeks governed by Greece - Domination and lack of freedom can be more then political it can be economical ie: Canada is economically dominated by the USA - the fundamental sense of freedom is the freedom from chains, from imprisonment, from enslavement by others. The rest is extension of the sense or else metaphor Isaiah Berlin, Two concepts of Liberty - War and most political decisions are cast by the terms of commerce Contradictions of Constant - Modern liberty is better then both than ancient liberty and pre-modern despotism (French Kings) - Moderns care more about freedom from - We prefer representatives other then direct government influence (paraphrase) - The liberties of the ancients creeps back in through modern notions of citizenship and virtue! But all great thinkers are contradictory! Traditional Society - The vast majority of society was sustenance farmers living crop by crop not of excess. - Non market society - Scarcity - Family life was a form of collective responsibility mostly because the size of the families were much larger with generations upon generations living in very close proximity to each other
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