POL201Y1 September 10 , 2013
Two ways we think about countries
Paradigms we use to classify the entire world
Devlopment and Democracy
Not just imperically but normatively
Subsistent agricultural type of culture to speicaliztion, exchange and the market
In which most people consume things made by others
Specialisation, mining, industrialization, post industrial service eonomy
Development refers to the process which production becomes more complex and
by extension more efficient
In general people consider development to be a good thing
Because countries of higher level of develpometn tend to be wealtheri
Develipment is measured by GNP
The individual share of the Gross National Product
Countries with higher GNPS are more developed than others
Critics of Development; Paradigm of Development
1. As societies develop people lose their traditional customs, cultures which
may have been tired to the agriculture or land is lost. AS de elopement
increases some aspects of culture and tradition may be lost
2. It seems to presume that all countries in the world will follow the western
pathway of Devfelopment. Then the presumption is that some countries
appear to have failed. Some countries that have followed the trajectories
the western have followed. 3. The goal of develipemtn presumes a goal of wealth creation. Argue that
wealth should not be a goal in itself. Nothing intrinsically valuable about
wealth. Should only value the side effects or benefits that wealth might
enable such as health, shelter and acess to food and water. People have
other values that have nothing to do with wealth like happiness, world
peace or environmental protection or family ties. Language of
development places a premium on wealth creation and that distorts
human value and moral structure.
These concerns what they’ve led to mainly is a refinement of the meaning of the
Can’t measure development by GNP alone. Beause it’s not wealth we value,
strictily speaking, but human well being. Development not only refers to GNP but
to things like infant mortality rate, literacy and education and life expectancy, safe
drinking water and etc.
If youi’re looking at those human well being statistics you can actually have a
country with a high GNP but not as developed as other country with lower rates
of infant mojrtatltiy and such.
Ex. In The US you have high GNP but not such good indecies of human well
In Denmark you have lower GNP but mugh higher level of human being.
Countries might score differently on separate measures of development.
Expanded the definition of development to include physical well being.
Have to include civic and political freedoms in definition of development Can be wealthy and provide physical well being but if that society doesn’t also
secure freedom of expression, from oppre