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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - power.docx

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Political Science
Lilach Gilady

 Power o Is an important part of international relations  One major Question is who has the power in a situation  Power Politics  What is it ? o Morgenthau - man's control over the minds and actions of other men " o If a gets be to do something that b would otherwise not do.  A large list of things can be used to measure power, such as military expenditure, size of army, size of economy, steel production, level of technology, etc…  There are also many indicators that are hard to measure, such as the level of morale, the level of intelligence, the quality of diplomacy etc….  Famous quote about power by Stalin " the Pope! How many division does he got ?"  Stalin believed that the Pope didn’t have a lot of power  However, this can be debatable  Just because he doesn’t have divisions, does not believe that he does not have power  How do we aggregate the measurements of power ? o It is very difficult to know how to Judge power o Power is not something which is very stable  Power is ever changing Bottom line: power is a very tricky concept  Power is multi - dimensional o It is hard because there are many different forms of power  Power is dynamic o Power is ever changing and ever adapting in situations  Power is relative o Power is relative b/c it is compared to other actors o Power is only affective if you can make the other actor do what you want, and therefore it is relative to the other actor  Power may be contextual o Some actors may only have power in only certain context's. o The power is only available in certain situations  Power and influence o We can measure power through influence  However, this is tricky, because how much of the influence is through the power ?  How much of the influence can come from the other actors interest ?  Power and force o Many times, power and force are combined and the capacity to use force  However, these are not necessarily the same thing  At times, using force may reduce ones power The Four Functions of Force  Concept created by Robert j Art  The four ways are : o Defense ( actual use )  However there are more than one types of defense  2nd strike - is reactive  1st strike - Pre-emptive ( imminent ) - defense because you are defending against an attack  1st strike - preventative (inevitable) - this is not considered a legitimate way of using force o Deterrence - the threat to use force o Compellence - a threat, but force could actually be applied o "swaggering" - a demonstration or a subtle threat Hard Power Vs. Soft Power  Soft Power o Was envisioned by Josep
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