o Is an important part of international relations
One major Question is who has the power in a situation
What is it ?
o Morgenthau - man's control over the minds and actions of other men "
o If a gets be to do something that b would otherwise not do.
A large list of things can be used to measure power, such as military expenditure, size of
army, size of economy, steel production, level of technology, etc…
There are also many indicators that are hard to measure, such as the level of morale,
the level of intelligence, the quality of diplomacy etc….
Famous quote about power by Stalin " the Pope! How many division does he got ?"
Stalin believed that the Pope didn’t have a lot of power
However, this can be debatable
Just because he doesn’t have divisions, does not believe that he does
not have power
How do we aggregate the measurements of power ?
o It is very difficult to know how to Judge power
o Power is not something which is very stable
Power is ever changing
Bottom line: power is a very tricky concept
Power is multi - dimensional
o It is hard because there are many different forms of power
Power is dynamic
o Power is ever changing and ever adapting in situations
Power is relative
o Power is relative b/c it is compared to other actors
o Power is only affective if you can make the other actor do what you want, and therefore it is
relative to the other actor
Power may be contextual
o Some actors may only have power in only certain context's.
o The power is only available in certain situations
Power and influence
o We can measure power through influence
However, this is tricky, because how much of the influence is through the power ?
How much of the influence can come from the other actors interest ?
Power and force
o Many times, power and force are combined and the capacity to use force
However, these are not necessarily the same thing
At times, using force may reduce ones power
The Four Functions of Force
Concept created by Robert j Art
The four ways are :
o Defense ( actual use )
However there are more than one types of defense 2nd strike - is reactive
1st strike - Pre-emptive ( imminent ) - defense because you are defending against an
1st strike - preventative (inevitable) - this is not considered a legitimate way of using
o Deterrence - the threat to use force
o Compellence - a threat, but force could actually be applied
o "swaggering" - a demonstration or a subtle threat
Hard Power Vs. Soft Power
o Was envisioned by Josep