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Lecture 20

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Lilach Gilady

Lecture 20 Environment Migrating species and nature affect setup borders and affect the ability of the intl community to deal with the environment The Club of Rome was accused of being Neo Malthusian Malthus said the food was going to be not enough for all of us Neo Malthusianism is used pejoratively to describe alarmist people We will find a way out of the food problem Is it a problem of population or a problem of consumption Preservationists vs Conservationists They are both environmentalists but they do not like each other A preservationist will try t preserve as most of the environment as possible looking at it as a vast valley Conservationists would try to set a balance between consumption and preservation NeoMalthusianism is conservationist Limits to Growth we need to look at the interaction between five factors population food industrial production nonrenewable natural resources and pollution The interaction between these five is crucial for growth and crucial for our ability to survive on Planet Earth If growth continues as in the 1970 it will last another 100 years and then collapse In a malthusian system the rich get richer and the poor get children Developed world has negative population growth Minerals would also cease to exist eventually and the prices would skyrocket as we run out of them There are many critiques for the Club of Rome itfs pretty alarming and many of their predictions are wrong as we donft see as much calamity as they predicted Therefs also Hirschfs Social Limits to Growth he argues that we would never get to a point where the carrying capacity of the Earth will bring us down Society will crumble before the planet because when we live in huge uncontrollable and unsustainable societies the debacle and cease of existence of the society will end us Simon in 1981 offers a different critique in The Ultimate Resource He says that the ultimate resource is innovation ingenuity creativity and the human mind Whenever prices go up our incentives change and we have incentives to create new forms of energy recycle and come up with new solutions NeoMalthusianism is also accused of being a conservative agenda of targeting the poor Lecture 20 Response and solutions to the Club of Rome Lifeboat Ethics vs Spaceship Earth Lifeboat Earth Hardin 1974 The Case Against Helping the Poor World is huge stormy ocean and we have lifeboats for each country Each lifeboat is trying to survive the storm Many people drowning needing help with a bad lifeboat If you help them and take them to your lifeboat you risk drowning yourself By helping people youre not helping at all and youre working against your own survival You have the obligation to not help them and watch them drown Itfs very realist because we need to follow our own selfinterest Spaceship Earth Henry George 1879 One big spaceship floating in space What happens in what part of the spaceship affects the other Everything is interconnected and there is just one huge lifeboat How do these notions relate to IR Theory Which is likely to prevail The Stockholm Conference 1960s growing environmental awareness 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm First event completely about environment Boycotted by the Eastern Bloc Places the environment as a relevant legitimate and integral issue part of the agenda of IR and incorporates it as part of international law The conference ends with lots of declarations 109 Most are very vague no promise to do anything North vs South development concerns should trump environmental concerns South is concerned about development Rich northern countries pollute and deplete resources while exploiting and they are telling the south to not develop to gnot
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