-next week's the last Tutorial: exam review, some sample questions used in
the past, and go through it as a group what would constitute complete
Exam Day: August 16th, Thursday. 7pm. EX100.
-gona be mid term, answer 5 of 8, then there will be final essay.
-judicialization of ca politics cancelled for next lecture.
-For next tuesday - go over main concepts needed for final exam, and then 2nd
half - we could brainstorm together how these concepts fit.
-Last Lecture: Guest Lecture on NW Territories, promised it will be on final
Back to Lecture
-so today's lecture, is globalization (GLB) and internationalization (INT)
-key point is that CA doesnt exist in a vacum, we are affected by our external
-world around us increasingly matters to CA politics
-GLB is an old phenom but w/ new dimensions in post WWII context.
-up until now, we think that regionalism (driving force of ca politics), and
brokerage politics key drivers, but today we will ad GLB as 1 of driver
-GLB definition: (slides) ..... vague, hard to find definition of globalization, so
complex, etc bla bla, so this is just a narrow definition.
-we want to think of GLB in its political dimension, so this definition by Carey is
better than 1 in text.
-politics, economics and society increasingly globalized.
-distinct processes of GLB
Features of GLB -economic/political/culture
-Economic feature of GLB - more trade agreements, economic ties increasingly
connected to other nations,
-Political dimensions -
-Cultural dimensions - some argue there is process of cultural moderniation in
parituclar because of American media domination and internet, more generally
West culture spreadin around world.
-historical dimension of globalization - it is actually an old phenom.
Historical of GLB
-1800s and before actually involved considerable trade among countries
-canadas always been a tradting ntation, given its international status,
periphery of European nations, and CA has often accepted it is an exporting
country, but also want to be seen as an import country, manufacturing textile,
-so we have always depended on trade throughout our existence
-20th century - ideas of nation building, economic independence got in way of
-British NA as an extension of european civilization
-NATIONAL POLICY 1879 - cANADA turns its back on FT, as economic
development strategy, high tariffs on manufacturing goods, but for periphery
west and east, they faced internationa lmarket that had tariffs on em as well,
so they couldnt profit as much as they could have via free trade context. So
this national policy was successful in creatin g manufacturing industry baed on
tariffs to make our goods more attractive and other goods outside less
attractive, while it did create that market, it made it more expnsive for
west/east periphery to buy manufacutred products, like farmers/miners could
not extract the profit of the economic development strategy. National Policy
created regional tension, Ont and QB were primary beneficiary of these
policies, so 2 sets of tensions developed ebtween export and import competing
manufacturers, and also betweeen resource rich periphery and the core.
-then GREAT DEPRESSIONS - another step backward to increasing
protectionalism around the world. FT existed prior to 20th century, but GD
comes around, coutnries panic put up tariffs to protect natinal industries to
survive. Break down of financial international systems, there were war debts
from WWI that made GD worse. So for example, some countries devalued their
currency to remain compettive, each tried to devalue more to remain competitive, etc.
-so these are historical dimensions
-LEAGUE OF NATIONS: long belief that philosophers n shcolars that there must
be ways to connect the worlds, but connect them in some institutionalzied
ways. So aftermath of WWI, first permemnant int organization formed, this
was the League, its purpose was to maintain world peace, to prevent armed
conflict from getting out of control, and you'll note that it did have substantial
membership, but it was misssing 1 key player - the United States. Woodrow
Wilson was main pusher of the League, but could not get it past the senate of
the state which had to approve the membership, the point was that even
though Wilson was forward thinking politician, the politicians in the state was
still very protectionist-thinking. So LON was emant to fix 4 fatal flaws of
europe -1) promote principle of national self defense n determinatin 2)
recognizing independent state (open discussionr ather than 3) military alliance
blocs will be replaced with guaranteed national protection 4) disarmment?
-obviously LON wasnt able in preventing WWII.
-politicians at time thought that LON could tie hand of uncle sam.
-so last feature is CULTURAL ASPECT OF GLOBALIZATION... european
colonization all over world, what they call bringing civilization to new parts of
wrold, and included their cultural socio aspects to new places, bringing new
religious practices, ways to organize society, patriarchy, so cultural normals
spread long before.
-What we commonly think of globalization - WWI and WWII disrupted this
previous phase of globalization. As said, protectionalism went up, and int
political organizations like LON werent effective at all.
-return to this orthodoxy of desire to FT.
-now in aftermath of WWII, FT is back and kicking
-modern international institutions - making clear why they are relevant to CA.
-UNITED NATIONS: so as said, LON failed, and because the perception we
needed whatever it takes to end these future possible WWs, UN established to
deal with flaws of LON. Had mandate to promtoe peace, the basic features had
general ssembly, which is like parliament, has a security council, a secretariat,
an international court of justice. Canada is one of founding member of the UN,
so why was UN this important to CA politics? So CA got behind the UN in major policy push within the UN for peacekeeping, thats what defined CA thru 60s,
80s to 90s. It's not only an institution that CA contirbute to, its one where we
can imprint our policy initiatives on, and there is growing international laws
that our leaership bound by, etc, so we affect it and it influences us at same
-NATO - north atlantic treaty organization - created right after WWII. NATO
intergovernmenatal military alliance, where member states agree to mutual
defense, there are 28 members. Main purpose was to protect Europe, and for
years its seen as western political international military alliance. May require
CA to go to war if a Nato member is attacked, and when was last time this
happened? 9/11 was last time, it was part of our NATo obligation. NATO
recieves obvious benefits - mutual defense, but we also have obligations to join
-G8 - 8 largest economies, has no bureaucracy, not an instiuttion of itself, can't
go visit the G8 for example. But it is an informal organization of these 8
nations, they get together, ministers of each portfolio get together multiple
times to talk about global responses to all sorts of economic-related issues.
-G20 - not necessary all democarcies. Paul martin proposed this. G8 doesnt
include the emerging economies that are really important. If we should have
informal economic organization, then G20 should be it, have 20 major
economies, get together yearly basis to discuss. G20 has replaced G8. Like in
2008, 20 largest economies get togerther collectively agree to spend 1 trillion
dollars to prop up their econoomy, we all need to do this together to prop up
the economy, we're all facing deficits, but we all need to spend and prop up
the economy, al country should do this. Ofcourse, Harper no keysenian
economists, launches a fiscal stimulus package, this group directly affected
spending in Canada.
Modern Econnomic Dimensions
-GATT & WTO - right after WWII, countries came together and made an
agreement to prevent erection of tariffs in financial crisis. But the thing to
remember and take away is that it evolved into the WTO. What it does is that
it actually creates a body, where GATT was an agreement, WTO is supposed to
be an organization that can enforce nations, set up tribunals to regulate trade
disputes, resolutions that are binding, etc and why is WTO is important in
Canadian politics. How has it historically gotten itself involved - even affects