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POL214Y July 26th Notes - Globalization

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Political Science
Carey Doberstein

Globalization -next week's the last Tutorial: exam review, some sample questions used in the past, and go through it as a group what would constitute complete answers. Exam Day: August 16th, Thursday. 7pm. EX100. -gona be mid term, answer 5 of 8, then there will be final essay. ------------------------------- -judicialization of ca politics cancelled for next lecture. -For next tuesday - go over main concepts needed for final exam, and then 2nd half - we could brainstorm together how these concepts fit. -Last Lecture: Guest Lecture on NW Territories, promised it will be on final exam. ------------------------------- ------------------------------- Back to Lecture -so today's lecture, is globalization (GLB) and internationalization (INT) -key point is that CA doesnt exist in a vacum, we are affected by our external environment, -world around us increasingly matters to CA politics -GLB is an old phenom but w/ new dimensions in post WWII context. -up until now, we think that regionalism (driving force of ca politics), and brokerage politics key drivers, but today we will ad GLB as 1 of driver -GLB definition: (slides) ..... vague, hard to find definition of globalization, so complex, etc bla bla, so this is just a narrow definition. -we want to think of GLB in its political dimension, so this definition by Carey is better than 1 in text. -politics, economics and society increasingly globalized. -distinct processes of GLB Features of GLB -economic/political/culture -Economic feature of GLB - more trade agreements, economic ties increasingly connected to other nations, -Political dimensions - -Cultural dimensions - some argue there is process of cultural moderniation in parituclar because of American media domination and internet, more generally West culture spreadin around world. -historical dimension of globalization - it is actually an old phenom. Historical of GLB -1800s and before actually involved considerable trade among countries -canadas always been a tradting ntation, given its international status, periphery of European nations, and CA has often accepted it is an exporting country, but also want to be seen as an import country, manufacturing textile, cars, etc. -so we have always depended on trade throughout our existence -20th century - ideas of nation building, economic independence got in way of free trade -British NA as an extension of european civilization -NATIONAL POLICY 1879 - cANADA turns its back on FT, as economic development strategy, high tariffs on manufacturing goods, but for periphery west and east, they faced internationa lmarket that had tariffs on em as well, so they couldnt profit as much as they could have via free trade context. So this national policy was successful in creatin g manufacturing industry baed on tariffs to make our goods more attractive and other goods outside less attractive, while it did create that market, it made it more expnsive for west/east periphery to buy manufacutred products, like farmers/miners could not extract the profit of the economic development strategy. National Policy created regional tension, Ont and QB were primary beneficiary of these policies, so 2 sets of tensions developed ebtween export and import competing manufacturers, and also betweeen resource rich periphery and the core. -then GREAT DEPRESSIONS - another step backward to increasing protectionalism around the world. FT existed prior to 20th century, but GD comes around, coutnries panic put up tariffs to protect natinal industries to survive. Break down of financial international systems, there were war debts from WWI that made GD worse. So for example, some countries devalued their currency to remain compettive, each tried to devalue more to remain competitive, etc. -so these are historical dimensions -LEAGUE OF NATIONS: long belief that philosophers n shcolars that there must be ways to connect the worlds, but connect them in some institutionalzied ways. So aftermath of WWI, first permemnant int organization formed, this was the League, its purpose was to maintain world peace, to prevent armed conflict from getting out of control, and you'll note that it did have substantial membership, but it was misssing 1 key player - the United States. Woodrow Wilson was main pusher of the League, but could not get it past the senate of the state which had to approve the membership, the point was that even though Wilson was forward thinking politician, the politicians in the state was still very protectionist-thinking. So LON was emant to fix 4 fatal flaws of europe -1) promote principle of national self defense n determinatin 2) recognizing independent state (open discussionr ather than 3) military alliance blocs will be replaced with guaranteed national protection 4) disarmment? -obviously LON wasnt able in preventing WWII. -politicians at time thought that LON could tie hand of uncle sam. -so last feature is CULTURAL ASPECT OF GLOBALIZATION... european colonization all over world, what they call bringing civilization to new parts of wrold, and included their cultural socio aspects to new places, bringing new religious practices, ways to organize society, patriarchy, so cultural normals spread long before. -What we commonly think of globalization - WWI and WWII disrupted this previous phase of globalization. As said, protectionalism went up, and int political organizations like LON werent effective at all. MODERN -return to this orthodoxy of desire to FT. -now in aftermath of WWII, FT is back and kicking -modern international institutions - making clear why they are relevant to CA. -UN/NATO/G8/G20 -UNITED NATIONS: so as said, LON failed, and because the perception we needed whatever it takes to end these future possible WWs, UN established to deal with flaws of LON. Had mandate to promtoe peace, the basic features had general ssembly, which is like parliament, has a security council, a secretariat, an international court of justice. Canada is one of founding member of the UN, so why was UN this important to CA politics? So CA got behind the UN in major policy push within the UN for peacekeeping, thats what defined CA thru 60s, 80s to 90s. It's not only an institution that CA contirbute to, its one where we can imprint our policy initiatives on, and there is growing international laws that our leaership bound by, etc, so we affect it and it influences us at same time. -NATO - north atlantic treaty organization - created right after WWII. NATO intergovernmenatal military alliance, where member states agree to mutual defense, there are 28 members. Main purpose was to protect Europe, and for years its seen as western political international military alliance. May require CA to go to war if a Nato member is attacked, and when was last time this happened? 9/11 was last time, it was part of our NATo obligation. NATO recieves obvious benefits - mutual defense, but we also have obligations to join war efforts. -G8 - 8 largest economies, has no bureaucracy, not an instiuttion of itself, can't go visit the G8 for example. But it is an informal organization of these 8 nations, they get together, ministers of each portfolio get together multiple times to talk about global responses to all sorts of economic-related issues. -G20 - not necessary all democarcies. Paul martin proposed this. G8 doesnt include the emerging economies that are really important. If we should have informal economic organization, then G20 should be it, have 20 major economies, get together yearly basis to discuss. G20 has replaced G8. Like in 2008, 20 largest economies get togerther collectively agree to spend 1 trillion dollars to prop up their econoomy, we all need to do this together to prop up the economy, we're all facing deficits, but we all need to spend and prop up the economy, al country should do this. Ofcourse, Harper no keysenian economists, launches a fiscal stimulus package, this group directly affected spending in Canada. Modern Econnomic Dimensions -GATT & WTO - right after WWII, countries came together and made an agreement to prevent erection of tariffs in financial crisis. But the thing to remember and take away is that it evolved into the WTO. What it does is that it actually creates a body, where GATT was an agreement, WTO is supposed to be an organization that can enforce nations, set up tribunals to regulate trade disputes, resolutions that are binding, etc and why is WTO is important in Canadian politics. How has it historically gotten itself involved - even affects provincial polit
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