Pol 301Y1.docx

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Political Science
Antoinette Handley

Pol 301Y1 Class 1- introduction class and some material Different histories, cultures and experiences Capture challenges and successes Assignments- 3 weeks from now, assignment draw countries and capital cities on the map, 5%, grade below 70 chance to retake quiz Second assignment- each term, term paper 2 term- thematic 1 term – broad themes of the term, look at specific country and link things that happen in the colonial period in a way to understanding the historical groundings of the country last assignment – term test on both terms class 2 and 3-missed CLASS 4- importance of maps –artificial boundaries and the challenges of state and nation building geography and colonial settlement external orientation or economic activity the challenges of landlocked countries the regional dimensions of economic and of conflict- spilled across boarders the coastal location of capital, and the continued marginalization of the periphery shifting capital cities as part of nation building programs Nigeria – capital moved to Abuja, few African countries with capitals in centre, true in Kenya due to colonial settlement rather than being on the coast Independence and the new generation of African states- 1945 no one imagined that colonial system, was going to end, not redy for independence. By 1965 most countries in the continant are independent. What are the implications? Summary of lecture-Implication of decolonization- European powers chose to leave and handed over power. Shifted agency towards African poltical domestic movements. Becoming politically mobilized in order to prove independence. Role of external and internal factors in shaping independence in Africa. Question of contunity and change, how much remains very much the same as transition to independence. Role of international factors moving towards independence- 1950s-1960s National independence movements The wave of independence- arrived at 1950s and 1960s. 1950s – north African countries: Libya morocco and Tunisia and Sudan, Ghana in 1957, guinea in 1958. 1960s- 30 British, French and Belgian colonies overwhelming peaceful, revolving around political protests and negotiated independence. Conflict and late independence- violence was an important aspect of independence movements in settler (Kenya, Algeria), portuguese and white ruled colonies. Mid 1970s- portuguese colonies succumb to resistance after coup at home 1980-1994- defeat of white rule in southern Africa use police to repress political movements. Partially about historical grievances and unwillingness of white settlers to accept political change. See it in Algeria with the outbreak of civil war. Difference in portuguese colonies is that they refuse to leave and decided their going to stay as view is as critical to their prestige. Africans are pushing harder and harder, where portuguese respond with violence back. Futility realized due to political unrest in their country. Our focus- bulk of countries who reached independence- why was ind achieved so peacefully and quickly Decolonization: int factors- in the 1950s European powers quickly came to see their position as untenable and financially costly, and were frequently willing negotiators. Why? – cuz colonial setbacks, loss of democratic support important Colonial setbacks- defeat of colonial govs in asia weakened resolve/revealed futility of resisting ind ----- In 1947, british forced out of india ------French were defeated militiarily in Vietnam (French Indochina) loss of domestic support- little support for costly expenditures and wars to sustain colonial rule: ----recognition that colonies yielded limited economic benefits -----growing realization of potentially high costs of colonies, given costs of post- war economic reconstruction ------growth of an anti colonial movement in Europe colonies that are going to be successful needed investment from the centre, into making the colonies more viable, which relates to third point above Changing international norms the us emerged as a growing global power favoring end of colonial rule. Reflected: commitment to the principle of self-determination interest opening up African markets, which remained oriented towards Europe Cold war concerns: desire for stability in order to prevent advance of soviet union after world war 2. United states wanted access to markets where trade in commerce was directed to Europe. Fear of communism spreading and us wil do anything they can to prevent that, and that means communism going into the low income countries, in this case. Overarching messages that international climate has changed and is turning against colonial rule The rise fo African nationalism Beginning after world war2, and accelerating after world war 2, we witness growing domestic movements for independence Largely elite movements, led by European educated sfricans able to mobilize mass constituencies Key: the interaction of internal and external developments in moving towards independence The great depression- world depression and collapse of global markets for African commodities Outbreak of mass strikes and rural protests across Africa and
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