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Lecture 2

POL301 Lecture 2 May 28.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science

Pol301 May 28th, 2012 Lecture #4: Independence and the Inheritance of European Colonialism The Legacies of European colonial rule in Africa “Imperialism leaves behind germs of rot which we must clinically detect and remove from our land but from our minds as well.” ― Frantz Fanon • Whether Africans fought for independence or the independence was simply negotiated with Europeans, state power was transferred to “inheritance elites”. • But, Africans have to live with numerous legacies imposed on the continent in less than a century some of which are enduring • The two most important challenges were: 1. Nation-building: how to transform state-nations into nation-states; 2. Economic development: how to bring about economic growth by reforming underdeveloped economies characterized by high levels of internal disarticulation, uneven development, and external dependency. Competing visions for Independent Africa: Pan-Africanism Vs. territorial nationalism • Pan-Africanism was inspired by the desire to instill racial pride among African peoples on the continent and in the diaspora, • Achieve their self-determination from European domination, • Promote solidarity among them, and ; • Foster their social and economic regeneration. • Pan-Africanist ideas were derived from the experiences of and struggles against slavery, colonialism and racism, as well as internationalist ideas of democracy, Marxism and socialism. etc. Pan-Africanist Objectives  It had two main objectives: • first, to liberate Africans and the African diaspora from racial degradation, political oppression, and economic exploitation; • second, to encourage unity or integration among African peoples in political, cultural, and economic matters. Marcus Garvey • In the 1920s, Marcus Garvey also began to promote African nationalism and advocate African self-government • His motto was “Africa for Africans.” • He provided a dynamic leadership through the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) • However, during the1930s, the pan-Africanist movement was strongly influenced by the ideology of Marxism-Leninism and socialism • The total liberation and unification of Africa under an All-African Socialist Government must be the primary objective of all Black revolutionaries throughout the world Different perspectives on Pan-Africanism • K. Nkrumah proclaimed at the time of Ghana’s independence that “the independence of Ghana [was] meaningless unless it [was] linked up with the total liberation of the African continent” (Nkrumah, 1980:77) • The idea of Continental Pan-Africanism through the creation of the “United States of Africa” • In 1959, Guinea and Ghana formed what was to constitute a nucleus of a ‘United States of Africa’. • But, the ideal of continental pan-Africanism was not shared by the leaders of independent Africa and they were split into two major ideological blocs Two Opposing Blocs 1) The Casablanca progressives led by Ghana and 2) The Monrovia conservatives led by Nigeria. • The Monrovia group consisted of Nigeria, Liberia and most of the French-speaking African countries • The Casablanca group consisted of Ghana, Guinea, Morocco, Algeria, Congo, Mali, Tanzania, and Egypt. • The Casablanca group favored political integration as a prerequisite to economic integration and a socialist path to economic development. • This group included leaders like Ben Bella of Algeria, Patrice Lumumba of Congo, Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, Ahmed Sekou Toure of Guinea, Modibo Keita of Mali, and Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt. • The twenty-four members of the Monrovia bloc considered their political independence to be still very fragile • They advocated a gradual approach to the question of African unity over those of the Casablanca • They advocated integration based on the institutional framework of a “federalist model.” • the idea of a continental unity based on the federal model was shelved and the two agreed on a compromise, the creation of OAU (Organization for African Unity), in Addis Ababa, on May 25, 1963, on signature of its Charter by representatives of 32 governments • A further 21 states have joined gradually over the years, with South Africa becoming the 53rd member on 23 May 1994 The objectives of the OAU • The OAU aims to promote the unity and solidarity of African States; • co-ordinate and intensify their co-operation and efforts to achieve a better life for the peoples of Africa; • defend their sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence; • eradicate all forms of colonialism from Africa; • promote international co-operation, giving due regard to the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; and • co-ordinate and harmonize members’ political, diplomatic, economic, educational, cultural, health, welfare, scientific, technical and defense policies. Aspects of legacies (Schraeder: 69-73) 1. The creation of European Nation-state system which created Westphalian type artificial state according to wishes of the colonizers 2. Division of African nations among several states (e.g. Somalia which was split into five state boundaries led to irredentism and numerous conflicts between Ethiopia and Somalia) 3. The incorporation of several African nations into one state (e.g. Nigeria, three major groups inhabiting three different regions and 250 ethnic groups) 4. The destruction of pre-colonial checks-and-balances system and its replacement with colonial administration. When they were kept in place they were perverted to serve the colonial system 5. Reinforcing of Patriarchal Forms of Governance at the expense of Africa – the introduction of Victorian masculine ideology and the marginalization of women 6. Authoritarian Political Legacy: a coercive apparatus police and military and authoritarian model of state-society relations (Bula Matari: he who breaks all rocks) and as well and a notorious method of divide and rule 7. Closed Economic System – Colonial system encouraged economic connection with colonizing empire buy discouraging the historical of interaction between African societies and neighbours (e.g. the role of Chartered Companies) “In other words, economically, colonialism left behind underdeveloped economies characterized by high
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