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Lecture 16

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Political Science
Abbas Gnamo

POL301 Lecture NotesJuly 11 2013Some cases of internal conflictsoIdeological differencesFundamentalist IslamThree Ds Deen religion Dawle state Dunya way of life cannot be separateTypology of African conflictsoSekoul identifies several causes of conflicts in Africa including artificial boundaries cultural legacies colonial policies the scramble of Africa and ethnic competitionoHe classifies conflicts that arise in Africa after the Cold War as followsLiberation conflicts which have occurred in Angola and western SaharaFundamentalists religious conflicts as in Algeria Mali or NigeriaBorder disputes with Ethiopia and CameroonNigeria as examplesPoliticized militaries withCongoDRC and Sierra LeoneIdeological conflicts as in Angola and MozambiqueFarmerpastoralist conflicts as in northwestern CameroonWarfare occurring as a result of state degeneration or collapseSecessionist rebellions as in Sudan Senegal and NigeriaoMore than 4 decades of wars armed conflicts and political crisis over two thirds of the countries in Africa with massive humanitarian and financial losses ex Angola Burundi Chad Cote dIvoire DRC Ethiopia Liberia Namibia Nigeria Mozambique Rwanda Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sudan Uganda Zimbabwe etcTrends Armed conflicts in SSA subsaharan Africa 19802005o126 wars involving the state in 32 countrieso6 between states 120 within statesoLong duration over 10 years for 10 countriesoCease fire and peace accords brokenoSubregional spilloversoHigh human cosr on civilian population 1 million battle deaths total war deaths multiples of battle deaths and massive dislocationsoMore nonstate wars than state warsCase of Extreme Political Instability in AfricaoFailed State SomaliaWithout a real government for almost two decades continuing turmoil crisis in June July 2009oInternational ConflictEthiopia and EritreaCurrently spill over tendencies from SomaliaoInternal conflictNigeria and the petroleum rich statesChad continuing struggle for control of oil wealth
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