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2012-10-22_Lecture#6-Democratic Break down and Military Dictatorships.docx

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Political Science
Roberta Rice

Lecture#6-Democratic Break down and Military Dictatorships i) Break down and Populist democracy ii) Brazil: Setting the Trend iii) Chile: Tu Allende Tragedy iv) Will the Military Return to Power? 1) Break down and Populist Democracy  PopulismTrade unions, peasants demanding inclusion into economic and political system. Growing radicals in the 1960s and the Cuban Revolution. (1930s-1960s)  The democratically elected presidents fell to military coups and these regimes had a particular characteristic that was similar to one another: Characteristics of Military Regimes of 1960s and 1970s  Blamed the poor state of their countries on their politicians (blamed corruption and incompetence on politicians)  And saw them as a better alternative, they wanted to run country directly, banned media/parties, and took an administrative role. (run the country better)  These institutions were quite distinct as they worked with business class, protest against authority  Places emphasis on loyalty, authority and stability.  Military leaders at the time prioritized national security and were preoccupied with internal subversion. o CIA worked with them, Latin American officers were trained in the School of Americas.  CIA provided technology and knowledge of surveillance etc… o The school of Americas was an American institution used for training military officers. (located at Georgia)  On military technique  Manuals on effective torture and repressing groups.  Taught sophisticated torture techniques: pain barrier etc… o The Western Hemisphere institute for Security Cooperation (WHISC)  Systematic use of repression against civilians including widespread use of torture, assassinations and disappearances. o In Chile, a thousand of supporters were kidnapped and disappeared. o Argentina had a lot of people killed, thrown from helicopters to the sea.  Big theoretical concept: Bureaucratic Authoritarianism o Esp. in South America and more well off country o It is a form of institutional, technocratic, military rule that seeks to curtail popular mobilization and is built on a political coalition and policy orientation that entails strong ties to transnational capital.  Brazil, Argentina, Chile (economically advanced countries adopted this) o Counteracts against Modernization theory- o The more advanced the countries are, the Latin American countries became MORE dictatorial instead of more democratic  Guillermo O’Donnell (author of Bureaucratic Authoritarianism) o Maintain elite domination, Transitional corporations over economy o popular sectors excluded from decision making through repression o Often forged in alliance with multinational corporations  Cheap loans from international sources, invest in flashy projects like infrastructure to modernize countries. 2) The Breakdown of Populist Democracies Factors leading to Democratic Breakdown:  Breakdown of consensus among political elites o For democracy to function ,leaders must compromise and following the riles of the game But these leaders in LA did not follow these two rules in ISI policies. o Moderate leaders of the left, were much more revolutionary after cuba in 1960s. Moderate on the right felt pressure on extreme right that was fearful of cuan case. o Extreme left and right pressuring politicians stuck in the middle and they all look to the military for them to help them sqush the other side.  Abuse of authority by incumbent governments  Abuse democratic process by a disloyal opposition o Not all opposition to democratic government are loyal. Several democratically elected groups were challenged by guerilla groups. o Leftist government such as Guatamla had opposition to overthrown it o In chila, it was 1973 where the opposition goes to extreme for a military coup.  Polorization of social class. o Class enemies: elites vs. Populisit/ worker class o Urban unrest: all of this frightens capitalist class  Frustration with the pace of change through constitutional/democratic procedures. o Esp. when you are a leftist government, you are caught in between two groups: those who want to speed up revolution (radical left/right) and opposition ntha t wants to stop the rate of change for revolution. o Risk alienating loyal opposition (whether they spped or slow down their revolution) o Either way, the other side, would look at the outside factor such as military to stop this  E
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