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Lec 9 - Mulroney.pdf

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Political Science

– ideological and personal differences with Trudeau – Trudeau personally didn't like any of the presidents during his time of office – part of the reason why Canada-US relations weren't good 80s were not good economically – Canada and plural-lateral institutionalism – G7 extremely important – not bilateral relations – Canada was active participant – emerging global change – trade barriers – economic change, beginning of the end for the cold war – Khruschev, USSR – Mulroney becomes PM just as Cold War unwinds – became apparent by the late 80s that the war was over – the defining paradigm for understanding foreign policy had come to an end – massive transformation in IR – independent decision making at this crucial moment in history – born 1939 (still alive); lawyer by trade – first elected 1983, elected leader of conservative party without membership in parliament – became MP only a year before becoming PM – similar to Trudeau (who had only been MP for 3 years) – was not an experienced politician, virtually no parliamentary experience – Multoney was largely outsider – turn away from more heavily favoured insiders – Joe Clark remained in politics, ran for leadership and was defeated by Mulroney – when Mulroney became PM he made him secretary of state for foreign affairs – was quite successful, more distinctive as secretary of state than PM – in 90's Joe Clark became leader of Conservative party again after Mulroney's devastating defeat – Mulroney had controversial personality – corruption questions, backroom politics in Quebec before he went into politics – as a result of personality and time in office, decision-making, devastation of 93, major policy decisions he took, he has mixed record – some really high points and other really low points – scholars weary of being too positive about his legacy – Trudeau and Mulroney are two great men in the same period in history, but a lot of similarities – both bilingual, bicultural Quebeckers – Mulroney's from small town Quebec but parents are Irish immigrants – hybrid national identity – representatives of Quebec at the federal level but fully committed to keep Quebec in the federation – both were electorally successful on the basis of winning most of the seats in Quebec – took 58 of 70 seats – tremendous element of continuity between Trudeau and Mulroney administrations – shortly after taking office Mulroney said he wanted to establish “super-relations” with US – 1985, Reagan visit to Quebec, led to perception that he was committed to being too close to US and president than most Canadians were comfortable with – he took Canada too close to US (may not be factual understanding of his time in office) – perception that both domestic and foreign policies were shaped to perpetuateAmerican interests – common grouping together of three leaders – Mulroney, Reagan and Thatcher (Can, US, UK) – electoral success – personally close, ideologically aligned – all instituted market-based reforms in domestic economies and removed trade barriers – privatized national industry – deregulated industry – attacked unions – pro-market, neo-liberal policies – Mulroney has two enduring legacies – Canada-US free trade – at the time it was highly contentious, divisions in the country – traditional left deeply uncomfortable with idea of free trade with US, felt that it would be end of Canada as we knew it, assimilation fears, resource colony – free trade is a successful legacy – took a big leap, did something new but was successful – devastating effect of failed attempts at constitutional inclusion for Quebec – generated public discussion about constitutionalism, showed Quebeckers that the rest of the country didn't understand dualism, felt more alienated than 1982 – majority government in 88, only 2 seats in 1993 elections – smashed party apart – Mulroney's legacy domestically is Bloc Quebecois representing Quebec (division) – represents a brand of conservatism that led to party to electoral catastrophe – PD = coherent – LI = multilateralism, helped to pioneer new consensus – CNR = autonomous, interest-driven (breaking from G7,American policy preferences and bringing other countries on side) Major Decisions and Events – 1984 Ethiopian Famine – first humanitarian disasters to experience CNN effect – generated concern amongst wealthy industrialized states – perhaps attributable to empathy of Mulroney, Clark and Stephen Louis – public funding for humanitarian relief, raised significant amounts of relief effort – 1985 Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI) – sometimes called Starwars Defence System, missile defence system to intercept USSR nuclear warheads – Canada was asked to participate – Mulroney government declined to participate in the initiative (despite close with Reagan andAmerican policy
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