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POL316Y1 (31)

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Michael Stein

Aboriginal Peoples and Treaty Federalism - Treaty Federalism o It has gained praise in the last 20 years and has become a popular concept in the study of indigenous people and has also come to assume a place of prominence in aboriginal politics. o Youngblood Henderson:  Treaties are “political compacts irrevocably annexing tribes to the federal system in a status parallel to, but not identical with, that of the [provinces].”  “the legal documents that interlocked to create Canada”  A way of restoring the unique first nation-crown relations - Indigenous Federalism(s) o Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy  Based in the Prairies  Great Law of Peace  System of power-sharing and power-dividing  Founding date disputed (1142, 1451)  Founded by Hiawatha and the Peacemaker  Recognized by British and Canadian governments until 1924  After 1924, Confederacy sent an envoy to the League of Nations to make a case against the Canadian government, in relation the Confederacy was deposed and replaced with the Band Council, but the Confederacy operates without the recognition of the Canadian state.  Wampum Belt – used to codify agreements, in this case to signify the federal arrangement  Two Row Wampum (Kaswentha)  Friendship Belt  Covenant Chain Belt – symbolizes the covenant between the aboriginal nations and the crown o Blackfoot Confederacy aka 6 nations Confederacy o 3 Fires Confederacy (Ojibway, Odawa, Pottawotami)  Based around the Western Great Lakes - Treaty Federacy o After contac, European powers sought federal power-sharing arrangements with regional Indigenous powers o New France had formal relationship with Anishnaabek nations, Algonkian nations, Innu, Mi’kmaq o Covenant Chain federacy inaugurated first between Dutch settlers at th New York and the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, in early 17 century (“Rope chain”) o In 1664, British colonists replaced Dutch. “Rope chain” became an “Iron chain”. In 1677, at Albany, both parties committed to a silver covenant chain o Indigenous constitutional and diplomatic protocol was followed – agreements codified in wampum. - The Numbered Treaties o 1871-1921  Pre-Confederation Treaties  Peace and Friendhsip  Province of Canada  Upper Canada  Vancouver Island  Post-Confederation Treaties  Numbered Treaties
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