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pol320 Oct.10 Lecture on Rousseau

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Simone Chambers

Tutorial Force and Might Force is a physical category, nothing moral or immoral about it, it’s a fact Might is a moral category, there is good and bad, it’s normative We give up our natural rights to form a state, in exchange for a general will (we are not enslaved) Civil liberties: Difference between being owners of something, and proprietary right to it (a civil liberty, found only in a society) Security(right to protection) 3 type of liberty (book1 chapter8) moral liberty self master and self determination. Not driven by natural impulses distinctions: general will, will of all, private will, partial associations general will: we need principles that everyone find binding. Has it’s eye on the collective good (general will cannot be wrong, but the judgment that exercises it can be wrong) will of all: contrast to general will, it’s a simple aggregation/summation of wills, does not equal to having a goal of the common good private will: a particular will partial association: Rousseau is worried about, i.e interest groups there is a tension between general will and private will the legislator th Oct.10 Rousseau Cont’d Book I Rousseau believes in the simple majority rule  This leads to false consciousness by Marx Distinction between natural, civil and moral liberty  Natural, liberties from the natural state  We have sovereignty, we have civil liberty: two components: 1 o 1) we are free, laws give us space. Once we have social contract then we have property o 2) gives ppl right to self-determine, collective self-government. Savage person is driven by appetite along means slavery  Difference between the three is the rehabilitation of reason: when we move from savage to civil society, we listen to reason instead of succumbing to our inclinations o But puzzling, Property is subject to the total control of sovereign. It is ultimately decided by us You need equality to have liberty (to be independent, act how you want). B.c if you are so poor, it constrains liberty he might sell himself. Unequal distribution of wealth is destructive. Radical idea Book II: General will is independent of what legislators actually choose and decide. Direct democracy 
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