European Politics March 18.pdf

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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

• Challenges facing the EU • go back to communism and its collapse • europe had always said that eventually all democratic countries cold be included into the EU • this was mostly rhetoric, because people didnt think the cold war would end • so the EU served to prevent mostly a war between germany and france und so weiter • they weren't ready to accomodate abraode europe • institutions were run on unanimity, • when they were smaller , up to 15 this made sense • including all these small counties didnt really make sense • the idea of a europe that easter europe culd join if they were democrtaic were cheap words • the colllapse of teh soviet unions changed this • these words would have to be followed up on • beginning with east germany, • if east germany could join, what was keeping the others from joining • hinestly, nobody wanted them in • if, then only for ideological reasons, not parctical ones • it did not appear that these poor eatsern european countries had a lot to offer to europe • we'll let you in with some kind of trade agreement • some non -formal member status relationships the east europeans said no • why: these countries were always decisively influenced by by their powerful neighbours • they saw the prospect of joininng the EU • that more than anything else in the 90s frove domestic politics throughout eastern countries • europe was not designed to make poor countries rich • it was designed around more or less equal partners • addinng spain and portugal showed the world that you add poor countries and make them rich, take shaky democracies and strengthen them • greece at the time was agiant success story • much wrong with greece, but its not a threat to returning to a military government • the countries in eastern europe looked at countries like that and though it was their turn next • live by your promisse • the EU from the early 90s gradually and incrementally moved towards admitting the formerly countries of east central europe • they began with a set of criteria that had to be met, the coppenhagen criteria • they had to be democraceis, market economies, had to pass the acqui comunitaire • negotiations begin in 99 but even before tht period domestic politics in europe were driven by: which party, which political actors had teh best chance of getting these countries into the EU • most people understood that this was a historic opportunity to join the west • in hesitating to let these countries in, the big countries could be shame dinto letting the east european countries in • germnay, sharing an easter border, had an interest in them becoming democratic, kinda • then the kosovo conflict • serbia was oing to esatbilize • so the EU decided it made snese to have a stable eastern Europe • if only to make germnay have countries to the eats become western countries • started off a series of negotiations • a huge amount , like 13 chapters,added • they said: lets negotiate • but really it was not a negotiations • the EU was teh tutor, the EC were th pupil • advisors were snet from bruxelles or from member countries ot make sure teh countries were abiding by the acqui cummunitaire • governments passed law after law after law • these former communist countries became the most closely monitored countries in the world, for about a decade • hard bargaining starts in 2002 • the EU budget comes from a levy on countries • 80percent comes from 2 thing: support fo aggricultural production and teh second is subsidies to poorer areas for strctural projects • the governments of eastern europe were extremely keen on these funds • east europeans were competiotors • they received less money for agriculture, they threatened to walk out, • germany comes up with the extra money • the existinng eu states became nervous about the ability for polish labourers to enter west european labour market • they put on a special 7 year limitations • in the end it was less • the 7 year derigation, in reurn west europeans would not be allowed to buy real estate • in 2004 it tkes on more, going from 15 to 24, two years later 2 more, then croatia • now its 28 • initially none of these countries entered the euro • at 25 everybody understood, that teh EU was not simply a vehicle of na
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