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Lecture 16

POL328Y1 Lecture 16: Social Movements and Civil Society

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Political Science
Kanta Murali

POL328 Lecture 15—Social movements and civil society • Movements related to identity issues and also lower caste movements and more recent types of “middle class movements” Pakistan: The Lawyer’s movement: 2007-2009 • policy gains may not achieve demands they’re set out to • in March 2007, the president then “Musharraf” dismissed the chief justice of the supreme court • protest started by the BBC and often these are very spontaneous events • in November 2007, Musharraf imposed the state of emergency • and a variety of other NGOs was almost jailed overnight • by the end of 2007, this movement gather enough stem that Musharraf became the army chief and called for elections • power of politics from below, in this context where military strong reflects the strength of contention from below India: The Anti-corruption movement: 2010-2011 • democratic context • in 2010, scandal that emerged was a massive tele communication scandal which resulted in a loss of 38 million dollars • in 2010, movement called “India against corruption”, a veteran headed this movement that paralyzed the national capital for several months in 2010-2011 o organized and demonstrate against corruption through variety of marches and non- violent protest o key demand was for the Indian government to pass a law, and set up anti-corruption • political parties and Congress at that time was against this anti-corruption position • From movement to political party: AAP o the leader and his supporters launched a political party called the “common man’s party” o single largest party in the legislative assembly in 2013 but no support of other parties o it spent 49 days in office and relied on protest methods, but lack of political support o weakened overtime but the party had a second win though it didn’t perform very well o protest movement against corruption for political party that finally came into power • General Concepts o Contentious politics ▪ occurs when ordinary people, often in league with more influential citizens, join forces in confrontations with elites, authorities and opponents” (Tarrow 1998) ▪ contentious politics can be violent of non-violent ▪ the realm of contention includes violence ▪ contentious politics includes social movements, protests and revolutions among other forms ▪ small scale protest that tends to be on the other side of contentious politics ▪ Link is contentious collective action • collective action can be brief of sustained, institutionalized or less structured, violent or non-violent • used by people who typically lack of access to institutions, who act in regard to new or unaccepted claims and behave in ways that challenge authorities or others • no political or economic power or to get a certain amount of justice in public institutions • not always the case that only marginalized groups that use social movements, but it is those who lack other types of social access o Social movements as a sub-category • What are social movements? ▪ “Collective challenges, based on common purposes and social solidarities, in sustained interaction with elites, opponents and authorities” (Tarrow 1998: 4) ▪ it is a grass root movement that is used for political change o Collective challenge ▪ influence lobbying and policy challenges and in that sense, where or how of how they protest tends to be very wide o common purpose o social solidarity ▪ particular leader, symbol or discourse that actively used to sustain solidarity o sustained interaction ▪ against authorities in power • Features of social movements o political opportunities and constraints ▪ shifting nature of opportunities ▪ leads to another feature associated with social movements social movements occur in cycles ▪ they often remain in the background but sometimes come back to life o cycles of contention ▪ repertories of contention ▪ modes of activity in social movement can change overtime o consensus mobilization and identities ▪ role of social networks and institutions • NGOs • not only are modes of protest varies, so does modes of mobilization ▪ outcomes • may or may not have a policy outcome • often mobilized in terms of achieving a policy outcome • but we tend to measure this success of failure even beyond these changes • social movements have not achieved policy changes but however they might influence political discourse • Some Cross-national trends o Recurr
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