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Lecture 3

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Political Science
Emanuel Adler

Lecture 4 – The Intellectual Origins of the Jewish State – 27/09/11 Review paper – 5 pages – Deep analysis of what the book is about and some thesis or criticism about the book – concluding by saying what you would have done differently – 3 parts: small description (1pg maximum), select one aspect of the book and analyse it, conclude by arguing how you would write the book – check out some of the recommended readings th The ideas that started in the beginning of the 20 century now exist in Israel In general terms, there are four kinds of Zionism that left their mark in the social construction of Israel Political and Liberal Zionism: Theodore Herzl and Asher Ginsberg (Ahad Haam) Labour/Socialist Zionism: Nachman Syrkin, Ben Borochov, Aharon D. Goridon and David Ben-Gurion Integralist Nationalist (Revisionist) Zionism) – Vladimir Jabotinsky Religious Zionism – Rabbi Avraham Isaax Hacohen Kook Political and Liberal Zionism as well as Socialist Zionism conceived of identity as a type of self determination as it freed itself from exile and religion Since 1977, there was a movement towards the revisionist and religious type of Zionism – The entire land of Israel belong to Jews and that non-Jews that inhabit the land do not have any rights Thus, there is a conflict between the two sides – To the latter, self- determination is not enough and to the former, exclusivity might jeopardise their right to stay Herzl – considered to be the father of Zionism and modern Israel – he was a product of the emancipation and enlightenment – Jews needed a country where they could express their self-determination with liberal policies and alongside the Arabs – In his utopia, Herzl pictured a state free of nationalist and clerical pressures – He believed that the state should have a strong role in promoting the welfare of the people He envisioned co-operative villages that later became the kibbutz and warned against intolerance to Arabs but did not see Arabs as a national community – He was against speaking Hebrew – He thought of the state of the Jews as a more political expression than a cultural expression He met with many world leaders and diplomats trying to further the movement of Zionism – 1897: First Zionist Congress and founded the World Zionist Organisation – He managed to head a few more congresses but his health was poor and he died in 1904 Ginsberg – Main spokesman for cultural Zionism – He placed emphasis on the content of Jewish identity and cautioned against abandoning traditional Jewish culture and argued that was Herzl lacked was a normative content that came from the Jewish history, culture and values – His views were still liberal but he differed with Herzl on content and timing – Only after the cultural centre in Palestine had been created could Jews be attracted to the state – State did not have to be created quickly but rather the cultural foundations Syrkin – Zionism’s roots were socio-economic – Jews should use socialism as a tool of national liberation – A jewish socialist state will solve Jewish class and national problems – Capitalism was identified with the Jews and a critique of capitalism would normally involve anti- semitism – Jewish state would lack the economic power and socialism would solve that – Borochov – created a synthesis between Zionism and Marxism – only in Palestine would the Jews be able to create a society based on Marxist values led by peasants and Jewish working class – Jewish self- determination by Jewish labour – Jewish capitalists only had a philanthropic view to the Jewish state – Only the proletariat could carry the national struggle – Gordon – Elevated the philosophy of manual labour to the degree of religion – He came to Palestine and became the epitome of the ‘new Jew’ who does physical labour and dries the swamps – Jewish transformation through physical work – Zionism meant creating the economic conditions for a viable state through labour – Shif
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