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Political Science
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Clifford Van Der Linden

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th Assignment: Due June 7 , on turnitin - Better to be specific - look at the specific instances (deterrence, alliance formation, Bandwagoning, power balancing, etc.) - which theories best explain what happened and why - action/reaction casual change REVIEW: PHIOSOPHY OF SCIENCE - A theory T2 is superior to a competing theory T1 when: o T2 is not falsified o T2 explains everything T1 explains o T2 explains things that T1 cannot explain o T2 is more parsimonious NOTES ON ESSAY STRUCTURES - Introduction: Describe instance. Theory X explains Instance as Theory X explanation, whereas Theory Y explains Instance as Theory Y explanation. Ultimately Theory Y is superior to Theory X because Premise 1, Premise 2 and Premise 3 - Should be no more than a paragraph - Body: evaluate each premise asn individual section (comprised of several paragraphs) within the body  Marshall the empirical evidence from (Instance) to demonstrate how both (Theory X) and (Theory Y) fit o Demonstrate the ways in which (Theory Y) is superior to (Theory X) o Attent to counterarguments, particularly how (Theory X) may be considered superior to (Theory Y) and explain why your argument still holds o Conclude by tying the premise back to the main argument and move onto the subsequent premise - Conclusion: o Restate thesis in first line of concluding paragraph o In two or three sentences engage in a brief discussion fo what has been learned through this analysis and the relevance of the findings for either the instance being examined or international security studies - Rational choice theory is predominant in IR theories (neo-realism) CRITICAL SECURITY STUDIES AND THE COPENHAGEN SCHOOL INSTRUMENTAL VALUE (Bernstein) - Something is valuable cause you can use it to acquire something else, and exchange for other things - A function of how well or poorly an item serves as an instrument for the fulfillment of our purposes, goals or desires - A functional as well as relationship concept - Bernstein: philosophical divide beside what’s instrumentally valuable and intrinsically valuable INSTRINSIC VALUE (Bernstein) - Ends account o Ethat which is valued as an end, rather than as a means to some further end o Valuable for its own sake o You need something else to give it value - Inherent properties account (Berstein dismisses this) o It is objectively valuable, without any relational capacity... o The value something has in itself by virtue of its own intrinsic nature and independently of all other values and objects o Valuable in and of itself SECURITY AS AN INTRINSIC GOOD - “in anarchy, security is the highest end. Only if survival is assured can states safely seek such other goals as tranquility, profit, and power” (Kenneth Waltz) o You have to have national security first (realists), if not other types of security is not possible - Security (of the state) intrinsically valuable for Waltz...but from an ends account o an inherent properties account? RATIONALITY AS AN INTRINSIC GOOD (Bernstein) - Individuals who are rational seen as more valuable than those who are merely conscious - Anthropocentric perspectives or species bias, elevates |normal adult human beings to the top of the natural pyramid” - Bernstein challenges the notion of rationality as an intrinsic good CRITICAL THEORY - Describes a body of work that falls outside the rationalist (neoliberal and neorealist) paradigm - Challenge to the status quo, the existing paradigm in a study - Departure from Frankfurt School in its rejection of post-structuralism or post-modernist ideas - Presents an alternative to rationalist and social science - Includes inter alia feminism (neo-) Marxism and constructivism CONSTRUCTIVISM: CORE PROPOSITIONS - To the extent that structures shape the behaviour of states and other actors, normative and ideational structures are as important as material structure - How we think about the world, shapes how we acts in it o Not only does the shared knowledge embedded in such structures determine how actors respond to their
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