How Does Attention Determine What is Remembered?
Visual attention is selective
Auditory attention allows for selective listening
o we can attend to more than one message at a time, but not well.
Selective attention can operate at multiple stages of processing
o missing something in our optical field (change blindness)
What Are the Basic Stages of Memory?
Sensory memory is brief
o memories are maintained long enough to ensure a continuous
Working memory is active
o chunking reduces information into units that are easier to
Long-term memory is relatively permanent
o meaningful memories are stored in network-like structures
What Are the Different Long-Term Memory Systems?
Explicit memory involves conscious effort
o include personal events
Implicit memory occurs without deliberate effort
o learning to do things automatically
Prospective memory is remembering to do something
How is Information Organized in Long-Term Memory?
Long-term storage is based on meaning
o encoding info in more meaningful ways
Schemas provide an organizational framework
o aid in the organization of memories
Information is stored in association networks
o formed by nodes of info, linked together
Retrieval cues provide access to long-term storage
o reduced attention, reduced working memory capability
What Brain Processes are Involved in Memory?
There has been intensive effort to identify memory's physical location
o a number of specific brain regions contribute to learning and
The medial temporal lobes are important for consolidation of declarative
introducing new material involves changes in neural connections. the
is important for declarative memories, place cells in the hippocampus
aid spatial memory.
The frontal lobes are involved in many aspects of memory
o activation of neurons in the frontal lobe is associated with deeper
Neurochemistry underlies memory
o modulate storage of memories
o epinephrine enhances memory
o amygdala is responsible for memory modulation through
When Do People Forget?
Transience is caused by interference
o forgetting over time is due to interference from both old and new
Blocking is temporary
o "tip-of-the-tongue" phenomenon
Absentmindedness results from shallow encoding
o inattentive or shallow processing
Amnesia is a deficit in long-term memory
o injury and disease can result in amnesia
o retrograde = inability to recall the past
o anterograde = inability to form new memories
How Are Memories Distorted?
Flashbulb memories can be wrong
o strong emotional connection to event may cause inaccuracy
People make source misattributions
o misremember the source of a memory
People are bad eyewitnesses
o suggestibility leads to misinformation
Critical thinking skill: recognizing how the fallibility of human memory
can lead to faulty conclusions
People have false memories
o can be implanted
o confabulation (repressed) can occur because of brain damage
Repressed memories are controversial
o some therapy techniques can result in fake repressed memories
People reconstruct events to be consistent
o tend to maintain sameness between past memories and current
Neuroscience may make it possible to distinguish between "true" and
o may be able to distinguish true memories from false ones
How Can We Improve Learning and Memory?
Mnemonics are useful learning strategies
o retrieval through frequent testing, overlearning, more sleep,
spacing study sessions, imagery
The ability to direct something in ourselves is called attention.
In order for something to be remembered, it must be attended to.
Attention is selective because it is limited.
Selective attention is adaptive.
When attention is divided amongst too many things, performance
Auditory attention allows for selective listening: we can attend to more than one message at a time, but not well. Selective attention can operate at multiple stages of processing: missing something in our optical field (change blindness) Sensory memory is brief: memories are maintained long enough to ensure a continuous sensory experience. Working memory is active: chunking reduces information into units that are easier to remember. Long-term memory is relatively permanent: meaningful memories are stored in network-like structures. Explicit memory involves conscious effort include personal events. Implicit memory occurs without deliberate effort learning to do things automatically. Prospective memory is remembering to do something. Long-term storage is based on meaning: encoding info in more meaningful ways. Schemas provide an organizational framework: aid in the organization of memories. Information is stored in association networks formed by nodes of info, linked together. Retrieval cues provide access to long-term storage: reduced attention, reduced working memory capability.