PSY210H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Theory Of Multiple Intelligences, Reference Group, Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence
Lecture 4 PSYA02 Notes
•Spearman’s Two Factor Theory
•Spearman found that many tests of intellectual ability were moderately
and positively correlated, leading him to conclude that every intellectual
activity involves both:
oA general factor (g)—common across all tests; how smart you are
on average. It is broken down into subcategories:
•apprehension of experience
•eduction of relations (ability to see links)
•eduction of correlates (ability to apply rules)
oA specific factor (s) —unique to each test
oHow to Identify General Intellectual Abilities:
•One way is to correlate intelligence tests; if correlation is 1,
then we can conclude on general ability when doing tests.
This is only useful if you are comparing two tests. What
about more than two tests? Spearman developed the factor
analysis: a statistical procedure for data reduction.
•Cattell’s Two Factor Theory
oFluid intelligence (gf): The person’s native intellectual ability; his
or her potential to learn and solve problems, as defined by
performance on relatively culture-free tasks (ex. memory span,
pattern recognition). This intelligence matures from childhood to
adolescence but declines as you age further.
oCrystallized intelligence (gc): What the person has learned or
accomplished through the use of his or her fluid intelligence; the
information acquired from one’s culture (ex. vocabulary, general
•Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
oAnalytical Intelligence: The ability to plan and execute tasks
oCreative Intelligence: The ability to cope with new problems
effectively (and to routinize familiar problems)
oPractical Intelligence: The ability to adapt to, select, or shape the
environment (due to evolutionary experiences).
•Sternberg’s Idea of a successful person is someone who can analyze and
understand his/her strengths and weaknesses and is able to maximize
on the strengths while minimizing the weaknesses.
•Gardner’s “Multiple Intelligences”
oThree Fundamental Principles:
•The mind consists of multiple intelligences
•Each intelligence is independent
oTwo Strong Claims:
•All humans possess all intelligences
•Each human has a unique profile of intelligences
•Gardner rejects the idea of a single intelligence and rather insists that
people have multiple intelligences/abilities.
•Intelligent Tests: developed in France in attempt to discover the retards and
help them learn.
•Calculating IQ Scores: Stanford-Bennett Test is the first of its kind to introduce
•Prior to 1960, intelligence was measured by ratio IQ—a comparison of a
child’s mental age (level of performance one would expect from a child
at a given age) to its chronological age. (e.g. mental age is 8 and
chronological age is 10; so 10/8 * 100 is 125, therefore IQ is 125).
•Now Deviation IQ is the trend: comparing one’s score to others of the
same age through a distribution. It is a placement of a person within a
•IT IS important to recognize that the IQ doesn’t represent a quantity like
height, but rather is a comparison of those within your reference group.
•IT IS not perfect in representation, however, very reliable.
•What are the uses of IQ scores? They test an individual’s intellectual potential.
It is found that the correlation between IQ and GPA is somewhere between 0.4
and 0.6. The correlation of IQ and salary is approximately 0.3.