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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 Notes

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
S.Cassin

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1
PSY240 Lecture Notes
Lecture 3
January 25, 2011
Treatment of Abnormality and Research Methods
Biological Approaches should be combined with some form of psychological
approach
Drug therapies antipsychotic: chlorpromazine people were able to
get released back into the community and function despite having
some psychotic symptoms. Antidepressants Tricyclic a lot of
dietary restrictions, SSRIs. Medications have different mechanisms of
action some increase serotonin, some block receptors so serotonin
cant bind to receptors all try to increase serotonin. Antianxiety,
mood stabilizer lithium, people with bipolar take to even out mood
oDrug therapies are convenient, inexpensive in comparison with
therapy
Electroconvulsive therapy passing electrical current through the
head, which triggers seizers some biochemical changes follow. This
tends to have some positive impact on mood but unknown reasons why.
Intensity, duration, etc., have changed over the last few years. Some
possible side effects include headaches, memory distortion, etc.,
Psychosurgery actual change made to the brain by removing a part
of the brain or adding a connection.
Repetitive Transcranial Stimulation use powerful magnets that
stimulate targeted parts in the brain that results in long term changes
in the neurotransmission of synapses used to be used with
depression, now learning about its effects on OCD.
What is Psychotherapy?
Any psychological approach to a treatment
Different modalities individual goes in by themselves to a
therapist or psychiatrist, group, family, couple
oAdvantages of individual vs. group: individual has more
one on one time, targeted specifically for you, Group
therapy connecting with people who are similar to
yourself, individual more expensive
Different Models: psychodynamic, interpersonal, behavioural,
cognitive, humanist, existential
Regardless of therapy, the therapeutic relationship is key. Even the
best treatment protocol can fail if the therapist is not very friendly.
Some good qualities in a therapeutic relationship include:
www.notesolution.com
2
Empathy
Genuineness
Unconditional positive regard
Respect
Development of trust must know that everything you share is
confidential unless there is a great risk if ignoring crucial
information
Foster expectancy of hope and change
Collaboration client and therapist are on same page of what
they hope to accomplish with treatment can differ across
treatments
Goals of Most Psychotherapies
Psychodynamic Therapy
Based on Freuds theory
Goal is to gain insight into ones inner life because emotional
distress leads to conflict which lead to psychological distress
Biggest goal of therapy was to be aware of these different
patterns, how they developed early relationships with parents
“Talk therapy unconscious becomes conscious if just talking
and not censoring what is said
Some therapists use hypnosis to uncover repressed material
Transference: patient displaces affect and feelings about others onto
therapist. For example a young female who is in treatment and
therapist is an older man she may respond to him as if hes a father
figure
Counter transference: therapists emotional responses to patient.
Displacing past relationships onto client
Psychoanalysis: special type of psychodynamic therapy, using free
association and examination of dreams and fantasies therapist would
try to draw patterns out of the thing that they talked about (dream
analysis or dream interpretation)
Potential disadvantages of psychodynamic therapy:
oAbstract
oThings that happened a long time ago
oSubjectivity
oLong & time consuming
Interpersonal therapy shorter version of psychodynamic area.
Meant to target four main areas: loss of a loved one, role
transitions, role conflicts, interpersonal skills deficits
Behaviour therapy
www.notesolution.com
3
PSY240 Lecture Notes
Pavlov, Skinner, and Watsons theories
Abnormal behaviour is learned same way as normal behaviour,
same principles of classical and operant conditioning must look
at context of behaviours
Focuses on identifiable stimulus and response, focuses on the
present what are the factors maintaining the behaviour
Behaviour modification: application of operant learning principles
to bring about a specific behavioural change. Perhaps reinforce
behaviours that are adaptive
Techniques include:
oToken economy, relaxation training, assertiveness training,
social skills training, exposure therapy (in vivo, flooding,
implosive done in imagination) in vivo and flooding are done in
person, but with flooding it is all done at once, systematic
desensitization, modeling, biofeedback given when a person is
trying to make change to some direct bodily function of some
sort someone with anxiety who has over stimulation and rapid
heart rate
Cognitive Therapy
Based on theories of beck and Ellis
Change clients misconceptions about the world, different ways
they might be perceiving the world that may actually cause them
to feel more depressed or stressed
Tries to modify persons behaviour by changing their cognition,
thoughts, perceptions or interpretations of events
Some key aspects include:
oPresenting treatment rationale to the client, for example
drawing a diagram for the patient
oShort-term intervention 12 20 sessions, short therapy
skills based treatment
oFocus on the here and now
oPatient-therapist collaboration
oOpen-ended Socratic questions: clinician asks questions in
a way that a client can come to their own conclusions
about something
oHomework
Cognitive therapy techniques always taking a look at what are
their predictions and what actually takes place during the
exposure
oExposure therapy in vivo, flooding, implosive
oSystematic desensitization
oModeling
www.notesolution.com

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Description
1 PSY240 Lecture Notes Lecture 3 January 25, 2011 Treatment of Abnormality and Research Methods Biological Approaches should be combined with some form of psychological approach Drug therapies antipsychotic: chlorpromazine people were able to get released back into the community and function despite having some psychotic symptoms. Antidepressants Tricyclic a lot of dietary restrictions, SSRIs. Medications have different mechanisms of action some increase serotonin, some block receptors so serotonin cant bind to receptors all try to increase serotonin. Antianxiety, mood stabilizer lithium, people with bipolar take to even out mood o Drug therapies are convenient, inexpensive in comparison with therapy Electroconvulsive therapy passing electrical current through the head, which triggers seizers some biochemical changes follow. This tends to have some positive impact on mood but unknown reasons why. Intensity, duration, etc., have changed over the last few years. Some possible side effects include headaches, memory distortion, etc., Psychosurgery actual change made to the brain by removing a part of the brain or adding a connection. Repetitive Transcranial Stimulation use powerful magnets that stimulate targeted parts in the brain that results in long term changes in the neurotransmission of synapses used to be used with depression, now learning about its effects on OCD. What is Psychotherapy? Any psychological approach to a treatment Different modalities individual goes in by themselves to a therapist or psychiatrist, group, family, couple o Advantages of individual vs. group: individual has more one on one time, targeted specifically for you, Group therapy connecting with people who are similar to yourself, individual more expensive Different Models: psychodynamic, interpersonal, behavioural, cognitive, humanist, existential Regardless of therapy, the therapeutic relationship is key. Even the best treatment protocol can fail if the therapist is not very friendly. Some good qualities in a therapeutic relationship include: www.notesolution.com
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